Question Answer
Vibration An oscillation, or repeating back and forth motion, about equilibrium position.
Wave A "wiggle" in space and time, a disturbance that repeats regularly in space and time and that is transmitted progressively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter.
Period The time required for a pendulum to make one to-and-fro swing. In general, the time to complete a single cycle.
Simple harmonic motion Periodic motion in which acceleration is proportional to the distance from an equilibrium position and is directed toward that equlibriium position.
Sine curve A curve whose shape represents the crest and troughs of a wave, as traced out by a swinging pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt.
Crest One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest.
Trough One of the places on a wave where the wave is lowest or the disturbance is greatest, in the opposite direction from the crest.
Amplitude The distance from the midpoint to the maximum of a wave or, equivalently from the midpoint to the minimum.
Wavelength the distance from the top of the crest of one wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalents, the distance between two successive parts of a wave.
Frequency the number of events per time; measured in hertz
Hertz the SI unit of frequency, one of these is one vibration per second
Transverse wave a wave with vibration at right angles jto the direction the wave is traveling
Longditudinal A wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling rather than at right angles to it.
Interference Pattern A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time.
Constructive interference addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude.
Deconstuctive interference combination of waves where crusts of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude
Out of phase term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at the point at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other.
In phase term applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place the same time so that their effects reinforce each other
Standing wave wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appear not to be traveling. The result of the interference between an incident (orginal) wave and a reflected wave.
Node any part of a standing waves that remains stationary
Antinodes the positions on a standing wave whre the largest amplitude occur
Doppler effect the change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source of the receiver
Blue shift an increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; it is called this because the apparent increase i twoard the high frequency end of the color spectrum; also occurs when an observer approaches a source
Red shift an increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source
Bow wave the V-shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface than the wave's speed
Shock wave a cone shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid
Sonic Boom the sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listener

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