Veterinary Planes of reference & cell anatomy

Question Answer
Anatomy Deals with the form and structure of the body and its parts. Identifies what things look like and where they are located.
Physiology Deals with the function of the body and its parts. Defines how things work and what they do.
Planes of reference An imaginary slice through the body.
Sagittal Plane The length of the body. Divides the body into left and right halves, that are not necessarily equal.
Median Plane = Midline (mid-sagittal) A type of vertical sagittal plane. Divides left and right into EQUAL halves.
Transverse Plane Across the body. Divides the body into cranial and caudal parts. Not necessarily equal.
Dorsal plane. Divides the body into dorsal and ventral. At right angles to the sagittal and transverse planes. Not necessarily equal. (A dog standing in the water)
Cranial Toward the head
Caudal Toward the tail
Rostral Toward the nose
Dorsal Back or top surface
Ventral Lower surface or belly
Medial Toward the medial plane (center of the body)
Lateral Away from the medial plane
Deep Toward the center of the body
Superficial Toward the surface of the body
Proximal On extremities only! Toward the body
Distal On extremities only! Away from the body
Bilateral Symmetry Right and left halves are mirror images of each other
Dorsal body cavity Contains the Central Nervous System (Brain & Spinal Cord)
Ventral Body Cavity Larger than Dorsal body cavity. Contain viscera (soft organs). Divided by the diaphragm. Consists of the cranial Thoracic Cavity and caudal Abdominal Cavity.
Thoracic Cavity Has pleura, which are the thin covering that protects and cushions the lungs. Consists of 2 layers. Pleural fluid fills the space between the layers.
Pleural Fluid It's function is to lubricate. It allows 2 surfaces to slide over each other without causing irritation.
Pleurisy/Pleuritis Inflammation of the pleura. The pleural surfaces become thickened & roughened. Therefore breathing becomes painful.
Abdominal Cavity Contains the digestive tract, urinary tract, and reproductive organs. Lined by peritoneum. Has 2 layers.
Peritoneal Fluid Fills the space between the 2 layers.
Peritonitis The inflammation of the peritoneum. Most likely caused by a ruptured bowel.
Cells Basic functional units
Tissue Specialized cells grouped together. 4 types of tissue.
Epithelial Tissue Covers body surfaces. Skin, lining of mouth, intestines, bladders. Contains secreting units: sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands.
Connective Tissue Holds the body together and gives it support. Adipose, cartilage, bone, and blood.
Muscle tissue in charge of body movement, inside and out. 3 different types.
Skeletal Muscle tissue moves bones — conscious
Smooth muscle tissue moves internal organs — automatic
Cardiac muscle tissue Pumps the heart — automatic
Nervous Tissue Transmits information and controls body functions.
Organs Groups of tissues that work together for a common purpose
Systems groups of organs involved in a common activity
Homeostasis The body's response to changing environment in an effort to remain normal.
Nucleus of the cell contains the… DNA & RNA
The two major body cavities are the… Dorsal and Ventral cavitites
3 structures found in all mammalian cells… cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell membrane.
Microscopic anatomy structures so small, you need a microscope to see them
Macroscopic anatomy large enough to see with the naked eye.
Regional anatomy study individual regions of the body
systemic anatomy study individual systems of the body
Prokaryotes no true nucleus, no nuclear envelope, and no membrane bound organelles. Ex: Bacteria
Eukaryotes All living things. Have a true nucleus, nuclear envelope, and membrane bound organelles.
Cell membrane Selectively permeable outer membrane of the cell.
Cytoplasm Part of the cell that is inside the cell membrane ,but outside of the nuclear envelope.
Organelle Specialized structures within a cell that carry out specific functions for that cell.
Glycocalyx Outer covering of the cell that aids in cell adhesion and to identify the cell by other cells
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) glycoproteins that aid in the bonding of cells and lubricating the movement of one cell past another.
membrane receptors integral proteins and glycoproteins that form binding sites
contact signaling cell to cell recognition that is important in immune responses to infection
cell mediated immune response response to the body's cells to regulate the destruction of infectious bacteria and viruses during specific immune responses.
Ligand small molecules that bond to larger chemical groups or molecules.
centrioles aids in cell division
basal bodies pair of centrioles that act as a base for cilia and flagella
cilia hairlike processes on surface of the cell that assist in the movement of fluid, mucus, and debris across the cell surface.
Flagella longer than cilia, helps move the cell through fluid.
Cytoskeleton internal structure of the cell that maintains the cell shape.
microtubules aid cells with rigidity and transportation.
Cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer. The hydrophilic "heads" are on the outside and the hydrophobic "tails" are on the inside.
Mitochondria Power house of the cell. Produces most the the energy that fuels the cell.
Ribosomes contain proteins and ribosomal RNA. Important site for protein synthesis/production.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Series of flattened tubes stacked on one another and bent in a crescent shape. Single lipid bilayer.
Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface and is involved in the production of protein outside the cell.
Smooth ER involved in the synthesis and the storage of lipids.
Golgi Apparatus Composed of stacks called cristae. Acts as a modification, packaging, and distribution center for molecules. Form Lysosomes.
Lysosomes Formed by Golgi Apparatus. specialized visicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes enclosed in a single protective membrane. Breaks down nutrient molecules into usable smaller units and digests intracellular debris.
Peroxisomes membranous sacs containing enzymes found throughout the cell. Changes free radicals to hydrogen peroxide then converts to water. Reproduce by pinching in half. Important in the detoxification of various molecules.
Inclusions metabolic products that the cell has engulfed
Nucleus maintains the hereditary info and controls cellular activities through protein synthesis. Consists of the nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin, and nucleolus.
Nuclear envelope continuous with ER and studded with ribosomes. Nuclear pores where the 2 layers of the envelope have fused.
Chromatin made of DNA and histones
Nucleolus patches in the nucleus where ribosomal subunits are made
Intracellular fluid fluid inside of the cell
Extracellular fluid fluid outside of the cell
Interstitial fluid extracellular fluid specifically found in tissues.
Fluids contain… Cations (+) and anions (-). These ions are called electrolytes. Acids and bases are also electrolytes.
Difussion movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration. Factors that determine where a molecule can pass through a cell membrane by passive diffusion are: molecular size, lipid solubility, and molecular charge.
Osmosis Movement of water into highly concentrated areas. Opposite of diffusion.
Osmotic pressure the force of water moving from one side of the membrane to the other
Isotonic same concentration inside and out
hypotonic lower concentration outside the cell. Causes cell to go through lysis and burst.
hypertonic higher concentration inside the cell. Causes the cell to go through crenation and shrink.
Active transport expending cellular energy
Endocytosis transports large particles/liquids into the cell by engulfing them.

Phagocytosis type of endocytosis in which it engulfs solid material
Pinocytosis type of endocytosis in which it engulfs liquids
Exocytosis Out of the cell, packaged in vesicles by the ER and Golgi body. Releases sat_flash_1s into extracellular fluid.
Mitosis life cycle of the cell divided into Interphase (growing cell) and Mitotic phase (cell actively divides). Stages of Mitosis: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
Interphase Period between cell divisions. (G1) Growth phase 1 – cell is getting bigger and doubling. (s) Synthetic phase – DNA replication. (G2) Growth phase 2 – centrioles complete replication.
Telomeres determine the length of the cell life. Controls replication
Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm that signal the end of mitosis.
Control of cell division contact inhibition, cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
Protein Synthesis Transcription and Translation
Transcription genetic information in DNA is copied onto messenger RNA (mRNA)
Translation Complementary nucleotides pair with the mRNA to create the protein.
Genetic mutations errors in DNA replication
Mutagen anything that causes genetic mutation
Membrane receptors play a vital role in cell-to-cell recognition or contact signaling.
examples of ligands hormones and neurotransmitters
components of cytoplasm cytoskeleton, organelles, inclusions, cytosol.
how many mitochondria in the average mammalian cell? It depends on the cell's activity level. Highly active cells will require more mitochondria.
Cell is anucleated and cannot divide, make proteins or enzymes, or repair itself… red blood cell
outer layer of the nuclear membrane is continuous with the… ER
Adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, and thymine are examples of… nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA.
Phase of mitosis called the metabolic phase? interphase
Acids and bases acids release hydrogen ions and bases release hydroxyl ions.
What characteristics allow molecules to pass through membranes fairly easily? molecules with a small diameter and lipid soluble molecules such as alcohol and steroids.
Which activity requires the expenditure of energy? active transport
K and Na Potassium is 10-20 times higher inside the cell and Sodium is 10-20 times higher outside the cell.
ATP molecules every molecule of ATP has 2 Potassium ions and 3 Sodium ions.
Giant cells that gobble up debris, dead cells, and outside invaders Macrophages
Exocytosis of waste products Excretion
Reproductive cells divide via a process known as… meiosis. Only have half the copies of each cell.
Mitosis regular cells divide into identical copies of each other.
Somatic cell is actively dividing during this phase… mitotic phase
Cell Differentiation Temporary or permanent inhibition of genes in some cells ,but not others.
Viscera Soft organs

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