The Automonic Nervous System

Question Answer
What are the 2 divisions of the ANS and which usually have antagonistic effects? Sympathetic and parasympathetic
What division of the ANS is associated with "fight, flight, and stress" reactions? Sympathetic
What division of the ANS is associated with "rest and digest" reactions? Parasympathetic
What is another name for the sympathetic division of the ANS because its preganglionic neurons exit the spinal cord from T1 to L2? Thoracolumbar division
What nervous system manages our physiology by regulating organs and organ systems, and their smooth muscles and glands? ANS
What is it called when a preganglionic branch synapses with a number of postganglionic neurons is called what? Divergence
What is it called when a postganglionics receives synaptic input from a large number of preganglionics fibers? Convergance
What division of the ANS is characterized by the divergence through white rami and convergence through gray rami causing a mass activation? Sympathetic division
What are the 2 neurons of the ANS in its efferent pathway? Preganglionic and postganglionic neurons
What type of neuron has a cell body in the brain or spinal cord? Preganglionic
The preganglionic neuron synapses with a second neuron (called what) in an autonomic ganglion Postganglionic
What axon extends from the autonomic ganglion to the target tissue which consist of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands? Postganglionic
What is another name for the parasympathetic division of the CNS because its long preganglionics originate in the midbrain, medulla, pons, and S2-S4? Craniosacral Division
What part of the sympathetic division includes the adrenal medulla? Sympathoadrenal system
The adrenal medulla has secretory cells that appear to be modified postganglionic neuron that release _____% epinephrine (Epi) and ___% norepinephrin (Norepi) into the blood in response to preganglionic stimulation? 85/15
What is stimulated during mass activation? Adrenal medulla
What is made by methylating norepi? Epi
In the sympathetic division, some postganglionics do not synapse in paravertebral ganglion but go to outlying ______ ________. Collateral ganglion
When preganlionic neurons exit the spinal cord and synapse on postganglionic neurons of the paravertebral ganglia a chain of ganglia is formed called what? Sympathetic ganglionic chain
Autonomic motor nerves innervate organs whose functions are not usually under voluntary control. What are the 3 effectors that respond to autonomic regulations? Cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
Many types of smooth muscles are spontaneously active and contract rhythmically (with/without) ANS input? Without
Parasympathetic ganglia that supply the postganglionic fibers that synapse with the effector cells are called what? Terminal ganglia
What type of ganglia is located in the parasympathetic division and located next to or within a target organ? Terminal ganglia
What is the term used to describe the phenomenon that occurs when a smooth muscle becomes more sensitive when the ANS input is cut? Denervation hypersensitivity
In the craniosacral division of the ANS, where does its long preganglionics originate? Midbrain, medulla, pons, and S2-S4
What cranial nerve is long and carries most parasympathetic fibers? Vegas
What cranial nerve innervates the heart, lungs, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestines, and upper half of the large intestines? Vegas
What preganglionic fiber innervates the lower half of the large intestine, rectum, urinary and reproductive systems? S2-S4
What neurotransmitter is released in both the symp and parasymp preganglionic nerves? ACh
Parasympathetic postganglionics release ACh called __________ synapses Cholinergic
Most sympathetic postganglionics release what NT? Norepi (noradrenaline)
What is the synapses called in the sympathetic postganglionics? Adrenergic synapses
Postganglionics of the ANS have unusual synapses which release NTs along a length of axon called what? Varicosities
In adrenergic stimulation, many useful drugs have been developed to affect ANS receptors. Drugs that promote actions of NT are ________and drugs that inhibit actions of a NT are __________. Agonist/antagonist
Adrenergic stimulation causes both excitation and inhibition depending of the tissue and therefore has 2 major subtypes of receptors for the same NT. a and B
ACh is a NT used in what type of stimulation? Cholinergic
What 3 areas is ACh used in a cholinergic stimulation? All skeletal muscle, all preganglionics, and parasympthetic postganglionics
Cholinergic receptors have what 2 subtypes? Nicotinic and muscarinic
Nicotinic which is stimulated by nicotine is blocked by what? Curare
Muscarinic which is stimulated by muscarine (from poisonous muschrooms) is blocked by what? Atropine
Some postganglionics do not use Norepi or ACh therefore what are 3 other types of NT? ATP, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide), and NO (Nitric oxide)
What NT produces smooth muscle relaxation in many tissues? NO (nitric oxide)
What part of the brain most directly controls the activity of the ANS? Medulla oblongata
What part of the brain has centers for control of cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, reproductive, and digestive systems? Medulla oblongata
What part of the brain has centers for control of body temperature, hunger, and thirst and can regulate the medulla? Hypothalamus
What system is responsible for visceral responses that relect emotional states? Limbic
Most visceral organs are supplied by both the symp and parasymp and is termed what? Dual innervation
The symp and parasymp are usually antagonistic for example in controlling what? Heart rate
The symp and parasymp can be complementary, for example in controlling what? Salivation
The symp and parasymp can cooperative by producing different effects that work together to cause a desired effect such as with what? Micturition (urination)
Adrenal medulla, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands, and most blood vessels receive only what type of innervation? Sympathetic
How is the regulation of organs with dual innervation achieved? Increasing or decreasing firing rate

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