test 3

Question Answer
objective performance measure Usually a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output.
judgmental performance measure Evaluation made of the effectiveness of an individual’s work behavior, most often by supervisors in the context of a yearly performance evaluation. Justice hypothesis of workplac
hands-on-performance measurement Requires an employee to engage in work-related tasks; usually includes carefully constructed simulations of central or critical pieces of work that involve single workers.
walk-through testing Requires an employee to describe to an interviewer in detail how to complete a task or jobrelated behavior; employee may literally walk through the facility
electronic performance monitoring Monitoring work processes with electronic devices; can be very cost effective and has the potential for providing detailed and accurate work logs.
performance management System that emphasizes the link between individual behavior and organizational strategies and goals by defining performance in the context of those goals; jointly developed by managers and the people who report to them
distributive justice Perceived fairness of the allocation of outcomes or rewards to organizational members.
procedural justice Perceived fairness of the process (or procedure) by which ratings are assigned or rewards are distributed
destructive criticism Negative feedback that is cruel, sarcastic, and offensive; usually general rather than specific and often directed toward personal characteristics of the employee rather than jobrelevant behaviors.
forced distribution rating system Requires evaluators to place employees into performance categories based on a predetermined percentage of employees in different categories (low, moderate, high).
policy capturing Technique that allows researchers to code various characteristics and determine which weighed most heavily in raters’ decision making
trust Belief in how a person or an organization will act on some future occasion, based upon previous interactions with that person or organization.
organizational justice Type of justice that is composed of organizational procedures, outcomes, and interpersonal interactions.
distributive justice Perceived fairness of the allocation of outcomes or rewards to organizational members
merit or equity norm Definition of fairness based on the view that those who work hardest or produce the most should get the greatest rewards; most common foundation for defining fairness in the United States
need norm Definition of fairness based on the view that people should receive rewards in proportion to their needs.
equality norm Definition of fairness based on the view that people should receive approximately equal rewards; most common foundation for defining fairness in Scandinavian and Asian countries
procedural justice Perceived fairness of the process (or procedure) by which ratings are assigned or rewards are distributed
voice Having the possibility of challenging, influencing, or expressing an objection to a process or outcome
interactional justice Concerned with the sensitivity with which employees are treated and linked to the extent that an employee feels respected by the employer
deontic justice A form of organizational justice based on what is the correct moral course of action for a company or for an individual
rational economic model Accounts for the way people choose jobs in which the individual is viewed as an accountant who sums potential economic losses and gains in making the best choice.
rational psychological model Accounts for the way people choose jobs that infer a bookkeeper mentality on the part of the applicant, but also include calculations that depend on psychological factors.
organizational fit model Accounts for the way people choose jobs by examining the match between the personality and values of the individual and the organization
affirmative action Program that acknowledges that particular demographic groups may be underrepresented in the work environment; provides specific mechanisms for reducing this underrepresentation.
diversity Differences in demographic characteristics; also includes differences in values, abilities, interests, and experiences
relational demography The relative makeup of various demographic characteristics in particular work groups
assimilation model Model for addressing diversity that recruits, selects, trains, and motivates employees so that they share the same values and culture
protection model Model for addressing diversity that identifies disadvantaged and underrepresented groups and provides special protections for them.
value model Model for addressing diversity in which each element of an organization is valued for what it uniquely brings to the organization.
inclusion The degree to which individuals feel safe, valued, and able to be authentic at work both as individuals and as members of various groups
leader emergence Study of the characteristics of individuals who become leaders, examining the basis on which they were elected, appointed, or simply accepted.
leadership effectiveness Study of which behaviors on the part of a designated leader (regardless of how that position was achieved) led to an outcome valued by the work group or organization.
leader The individual in a group given the task of directing task-relevant group activities or, in the absence of a designated leader, carrying the primary responsibility for performing these functions in the group.
attempted leadership Leader accepts the goal of changing a follower, and can be observed attempting to change the follower.
successful leadership Follower changes his or her behavior as a function of the leader’s effort
effective leadership Leader changes follower’s behavior, resulting in both leader and follower feeling satisfied and effective.
leader development Concentrates on developing, maintaining, or enhancing individual leader attributes such as knowledge, skills, and abilities.
leadership development Concentrates on the leader– follower relationship and on developing an environment in which the leader can build relationships that enhance cooperation and resource exchange
interpersonal competence Includes social awareness and social skills such as the ability to resolve conflict and foster a spirit of cooperation.
power motive Attaining control or power that results from people learning that the exercise of control over others or the environment is pleasing
activity inhibition Psychological term used to describe a person who is not impulsive
affiliation need Need for approval or connections with others.
“Great Man” Theories historians who examined the life of a respected leader for clues leading to that person’s greatness; often focused on a galvanizing experience or an admirable trait (persistence, optimism, or intelligence) that a leader possesses to a singular degree.
trait approach Attempts to show that leaders possessed certain characteristics that nonleaders did not
power approach Examines the types of power wielded by leaders.
behavioral approach Begun by researchers at Ohio State University; focused on the kinds of behavior engaged in by people in leadership roles and identified two major types: consideration and initiating structure.
consideration consideration
initiating structure initiating structure
task-oriented behavior Identified by University of Michigan researchers as an important part of a leader’s activities; similar to initiating structure from the Ohio State studies.
relations-oriented behavior Identified by University of Michigan researchers as an important part of a leader’s activities; similar to consideration in the Ohio State model.
participative behavior Identified in the Michigan studies; allows subordinates more participation in decision making and encourages more two-way communication.
contingency approach Proposed to take into account the role of the situation in the exercise of leadership
job maturity A subordinate’s job-related ability, skills, and knowledge.
psychological maturity The self-confidence and selfrespect of the subordinate.
virtual team Team that has widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal and linked through computers and other technology
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) Large-scale cross-cultural study of leadership by 170 social scientists and management researchers in over 60 countries.
culture-specific characteristics Leader characteristics that are more acceptable in some countries than others
climate A shared perception among employees regarding their work entity: a particular organization, division, department, or work group
autocratic climate Organization described by Lewin as highly structured with little opportunity for individual responsibility or risk taking at the lowest levels
democratic climate Organization described by Lewin as less structured, with greater opportunity for individual responsibility and risk taking.
culture A system in which individuals share meanings and common ways of viewing events and objects
climate/culture strength Extent to which members of the organization share a perception (in the case of climate) or a value/belief pattern (in the case of culture).
socialization Process by which a new employee becomes aware of the values and procedures of an organization
person-job (P-J) fit Extent to which the skills, abilities, and interests of an individual are compatible with the demands of the job.
person-organization (P-O) fit Extent to which the values of an employee are consistent with the values held by most others in the organization.
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) model Model that proposes that organizations and individuals undergo a process of jointly assessing probable fit based primarily on personality characteristics. the goal is to make the workforce homogeneous with respect to personality characteristics
unfreezing First stage in the process of changing an organization in which individuals become aware of their values and beliefs.
changing Second stage in the process of changing an organization in which individuals adopt new values, beliefs, and attitudes.
refreezing Third stage in the process of changing an organization in which the new attitudes and values of individuals are stabilized.
episodic change Organizational change characterized as infrequent, discontinuous, and intentional; often launched with fanfare, with senior leaders clearly articulating pathways to change and disseminating information about the process and desired end state.
continuous change Ongoing, evolving, and cumulative organizational change characterized by small, continuous adjustments, created simultaneously across units, that add up to substantial change.
rebalance Stage in the freeze–rebalance–unfreeze continuous change process intended to reframe what has happened and produce a cognitive framework that gives change deeper meaning
Total Quality Management (TQM) A unique way of organizing productive effort by emphasizing team-based behavior directed toward improving quality and meeting customer demands.
Six Sigma systems Approach to quality management providing training for employees and managers in statistical analysis, project management, and problem-solving methods to reduce the defect rate of products
lean production Method that focuses on reducing waste in every form, including overproduction, lengthy waiting times for materials, excessive transportation costs, unnecessary stock, and defective products.
just-in-time (JIT) production System that depends on the detailed tracking of materials and production so that the materials and human resources necessary for production arrive just in time; central to the reduction of waste in lean production processes.

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