Test 3

Question Answer
The energy-carrying molecule in the body. Must be generated continuously since muscles store only enough for 1–3 seconds of activity ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
After depleting ATP stores, muscles turn to this source which stores energy that can be used to make ATP. Lasts 3-30 seconds of maximal physical effort. Creatine Phosphate (CP)
After creatine phosphate, the next source of energy for ATP production Glucose
Process by which glucose provides ATP Glycolysis
Glucose source during exercise Muscle Glycogen & Blood Glucose
Glycogen stores are Limited
Primary glycolysis end product Pyruvate
With limited Oxygen, Pyruvate is converted to Lactic Acid
The by-produce of intense activity Lactic Acid
Excess lactic acid goes back to where to be converted into what? Liver; Glucose
This type of breakdown of glucose yields two ATP molecules Anaerobic
This type of breakdown of glucose yields 32-38 molecules of ATP Aerobic
Source of ATP production used mainly for high-intensity activity Carbohydrates
Source of ATP production used mainly for low intensity or long duration (marathons) activity. Fats (Triglycerides)
Athletes need what percentage of total energy from Carbohydrates? 45-65%
In order to enhance muscle protein synthesis and Optimize glycogen storage, following exercise in the first 4-6 hours of recovery, one must obtain: Carbohydrates and Protein
GI distress, feeling heavy, bloated, and sluggish are all side effects of: Carbohydrate (glycogen) loading
Alteration of exercise duration and carbohydrate intake to maximize muscle glycogen; does not always improve performance. Carbohydrate (Glycogen) Loading
Increased number and activity of enzymes invovled in Fat Metabolism
Recommended or not?: High protein, Low carb diet for athletes. Why? Not recommended. Too low in energy and CHO to support training and ferformance.
Lubricant that bathes tissues and cells Water
Fluid involved in temperature regulation (evaporative cooling) Water
Dizziness due to a water imbalance is known as Heat Syncope
Heat cramps due to water imbalance causes Muscle Spasms
Heat exhaustion and heatstroke occur on a Continuum
When should fluids be consumed? (In relation to exercise) Before, During, and After exercise
Is the thirst mechanism reliable? No
How much water should we drink? Enough to maintain body weight
Vitamins and Minerals that are needed in small amounts are known as Micronutrients
Carbon containing compounds that regulate a wide range of body processes are known as Vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins A, D, E, and K
When one consumes ten times a recommended intake or more, it is known as: Megadosing
Vitamins that are toxic when taken in excess Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins readily stored in body's adipose tissue Fat-Soluble Vitamins
These are not stored in large amounts; they need to be consumed on a weekly basis. Deficiency symptoms can arise quickly. Water-Soluble Vitamins
Naturally occurring inorganic substances Minerals
All minerals are not digested nor broken down prior to absorption because they are: Elements
Minerals that require at least 100mg per day Major Minerals
Minerals that require less than 100 mg per day: Trace
The absorption of vitamins and minerals depends on their Chemical Form
Word that describes only in meats, fish, and poultry. Heme
Word that describes plant and animal foods, iron-fortified foods, and supplements. Non-Heme
Decreases zinc and iron absorption Oxalic Acid
Most minerals have better absorption from what over what? Animal sources over supplements
Does enriching a low-nutrient food in vitamins in minerals turn it into a healthful food? No
From which source is it easier to develop a toxicity? Supplements or Animal Foods? Supplements
Adequate intake of Vitamin C has been associated with a lower risk of: Cataracts
Adequate intake of Vitamin D has been associated with a lower risk of: Colon Cancer
Adequate intake of Vitamin E has been associated with a lower risk of: Complications of diabetes
Adequate intake of Vitamin K has been associated with a lower risk of: Osteoporosis
Adequate intake of calcium has been associated with a lower risk of: Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Adequate intake of chromium has been associated with a lower risk of: Type 2 Diabetes in older adults
Adequate intake of Magnesium has been associated with a lower risk of: Muscle wasting in older adults
Adequate intake of Selenium has been associated with a lower risk of: Certain types of cancer
Do vitamins and minerals provide energy directly? No
Vitamins and Minerals are needed for generating energy from Macronutrients
Which vitamins are particularly important in assisting energy metabolism? B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamins and Minerals often function as: Coenzymes
Coenzymes that function in cell regeneration and red blood cell synthesis: Folate & Vitamin B12
Works in metabolizing CHO and BCAA; assists in the production of DNA, RNA, and synthesis of neurotransmitters: Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
Pork products, sunflower seeds, beans, whole or enriched grains are all good sources of: Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
Deficiency of this causes beriberi Thiamin (vitamin B1)
What is beriberi? muscle wasting, nerve damage
Coenzyme involved in oxidation-reduction reactions. Part of coenzyme glutathione peroxidase (antioxidant) Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
Milk, enriched foods, and meat are good sources for: Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Light-sensitive vitamin Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Deficiency of Riboflavin is known as: Ariboflavinosis
Ariboflavinosis is characterized by a deficiency of riboflavin and a sore throat and swollen mucous membranes
Coenzyme of Riboflavin FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide)
The two forms of Niacin Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide
Vitamin required for oxidation-reduction reactions of CHO, proteins, and fats; can be made from amino acid tryptophan Niacin (Vitamin B3)
Deficiency of this causes Pellagra Niacin (Vitamin B3)
Good sources of this Vitamin include meat, fish, poultry, enriched breads and cereals Niacin (Vitamin B3)
Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism and glucagoneogenesis Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Good sources of this vitamin include: meat, fish, poultry, enriched cereals, and starchy veggies Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Toxicity form high dose supplements of pyridoxine causes Nerve damage and Skin lesions
Deficiency of this vitamin causes damage to skin, blood, and nerve tissue Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
3 groups of coenzymes: Pyridoxine (PN)
Pyridoxal (PL)
Pyridoxamine (PM)
Essential for fatty acid metabolism & required for synthesizing cholesterol, steroids, and detoxification of drugs Pantothenic Acid
Good sources of this vitamin include: Chicken, beef, egg yold, potatoes, oat cereals, and tomato products Pantothenic Acid
Deficiencies are rare and there are no adverse side effects from excess amounts of this vitamin Pantothenic Acid
Coenzymes for fatty acid synthesis, glucagoneogenesis; carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism Biotin
Deficiency seen in large consumption of raw egg whites over time Biotin
Vitamin-like substance. Metabolism, cell membranes, neurotransmission, fat and cholesterol metabolism/transport. Found in Bile Choline
Homocysteine Metabolism, widespread in foods Choline
Deficiency of this causes fat accumulation in the liver: Choline
Component of thyroid hormones. Regulates body temperature, metabolism. Important for reproduction and growth Iodine
Good Sources of this include: saltwater fish, iodized salts Iodine
Excess iodine consumption interferes with function of thyroid
What is a goiter? An enlarged thyroid gland due to excess iodine or too little iodine.
Two iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) Cretinism and Hypothyroidism
Characterized by mental retardation and stunted growth; caused by iodine deficiency Cretinism
Caused by iodine deficiency; characterized by decreased body temp, cold intolerance, weight gain, fatigue, and sluggishness Hypothyroidism
Toxicity of iodine and autoimmune disease (Grave's Disease) causes Hyperthyroidism
Caused by iodine toxicity; characterized by weight loss, increased heat production, muscular tremors, nervousness, racing heartbeat, and protrution of the eyes Hyperthyroidism
Assists insulin to transport glucose from the bloodstream into the cells; important for RNA and DNA metabolism; supports immune function and growth Chromium
Deficiency of chromium causes rise in blood glucose and insulin levels
Cofactor in protein, fat, and CHO metabolism, glucagoneogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, and urea formation Manganese
Part of antioxidant superoxide dismutase; whole grain foods are a good source Manganese
Toxicity of this impairs the nervous system, causing spasms and tremors Manganese
A major mineral and component of thiamin and biotin Sulfur
Sulfur is a part of the two amino acids: Methionine & Cysteine
Required by liver for alcohol detoxification; assists in maintaining acid-base balance; obtained from dietary proteins Sulfur
Diets high in unenriched, processed foods provide inadequate levels of which vitamins? B-Vitamins
Compounds that protect cells from the damage caused by oxidation Antioxidants
Vitamins E,C,A, and Selenium all have what kind of properties? Antioxidant
Chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons Oxidation
Occurs when atoms gain an electron Reduction
Stable atoms have an even number of electrons (pairs) orbiting; electron loss during oxidation leaves an odd number or unpaired electron, causing unstable atom otherwise known as a Free Radical
Oxygen molecule that becomes a free radical is known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Metabolic processes such as the immune system fighting infections and Environmental factors such as pollution, excess sunlight, toxic substances, radiation, tobacco smoke, and asbestos cause Free Radicals
When free radicals form within the phospholipid bilayers of cell membranes and steal electrons, this causes Cell Damage
What can free radicals damage? LDLs, cell proteins, and DNA
What is increased when there are free radicals in the body? Risk for chronic disease
What stabilizes free radicals and opposes oxidation? Antioxidants
This donates electrons or hydrogen molecules to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce oxidation damage Antioxidant Vitamins
These act as cofactors within enzyme systems that convert free radicals to less damaging substances that can be excreted Antioxidant Minerals
These breakdown oxidized fatty acids and make more vitamin antioxidants available to fight other free radicals. Antioxidant Enzymes
Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Glutathione peridoxase are Antioxidant Enzymes
converts free radicals to less damaging substances, such as hydrogen peroxide Superoxide dismutase
removes hydrogen peroxide from the body Catalase
Removes hydrogen peroxide Glutathione Peridoxase
Fat soluble, absorbed with dietary fats; stored in adipose tissue, cell membranes Vitamin E
Incorporated into the chylomicron to be transported to the liver and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) Vitamin E
The biologically active forms of Vitamin E Tocopherol compounds
Form of Vitamin E that is most potent, found in food Alpha-tocopherol
What is the RDA for alpha-tocopherol? 15 mg/day
Protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fatty cell components, and LDLs from oxidation (lowering heart disease risk) are all functions of Vitamin E
This is added to oil-based foods and skincare products to reduce rancidity and spoilage Vitamin E
This is essential for normal nerve and muscle development, an enhanced immune system, and for vitamin A absorption if it is low Vitamin E
This is destroyed by exposure to oxygen, metals, ultraviolet light, and heat Vitamin E
Toxicity of this vitamin causes nausea, intestinal distress, and diarrhea Vitamin E
This vitamin interacts with anticoagulants (aspirin, Coumadin) Vitamin E
Long term use of this vitamin may cause hemorrhagic stroke Vitamin E
Deficiency of this causes Erythrocyte hemolysis (rupturing of blood cells) and leads to anemia Vitamin E
Loss of muscle coordination and reflexes, impaired vision, speech, and immunity as well as fat malabsorption are all symptoms of deficiency of this Vitamin E
Water soluble vitamin that synthesizes collagen, DNA, Bile, neurotransmitters (serotonin), Catnitine, and hormones Vitamin C
What is associated with neurotransmitters? Serotonin
What is associated with transportation of long-chain fatty acids? Carnitine
Thyroxine, Epinephrine, and Steroids are what? Hormones
What does Vitamin C do for LDL cholesterol? It is an antioxidant for protecting LDL-cholesterol from oxidation
What does vitamin C, as an antioxidant, do for the lungs? It protects the lungs from ozone and cigarette damage
What does Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, do for the White blood cells? What occurs as a result? It protects them & results in an enhanced immune function
What reduces nitrosamines? Vitamin C
Cancer-causing agent found in cured and processed meats Nitrosamines
What regenerates oxidized vitamin E and enhances iron absorption? Vitamin C
What are the Vitamin C requirements? 90 mg/day (men), 75 mg/day (women)
Do smokers require more Vitamin C? How much More? Yes; 35 mg/day more
What causes a need for more Vitamin C? Healing from traumatic injury, surgery, burns, and birth control.
What is the best source of Vitamin C? Fresh fruits and veggies
What 2 things destroy Vitamin C? Heat and Oxygen
3 methods of cooking that reduce vitamin C loss. steaming, microwaving, and stir-frying
What is the UL for Vitamin C? 2,000 mg/day
What can long term excess Vitamin C intake cause? Nausea, diarrhea, nosebleeds, and abdominal cramps
What is hemochromatosis? Excess Iron accumulation in the body
What is the most common Vitamin C deficiency disease? Scurvy
Bleeding gums, loose teeth, weakness, wounds that fail to heal, bone pain and fractures, diarrhea, and depression are all symptoms of Scurvy
Does drug and alcohol abuse increase risk for vitamin C deficiency? Yes
Does a low fruit and veggie intake increase the risk for vitamin C deficiency? Yes
Liquid portin of cells and tissues; able to move freely and adapt to shapes; about 50-70% of healthy adult body weight Body Fluids
Within the cell; 2/3 of body fluid intracellular fluid (ICF)
outside the cell; 1/3 of body fluid extracellular fluic (ECF)
Material between cells that make up a particular tissue or organ (muscle, liver) Interstitial Fluid
Water in the blood and lymph that transports blood cells within arteries, veins, and capillaries. Intravascular Fluid (Plasma)
Where is fluid sat_flash_1 higher: Lean tissue or fatty tissue? Lean Tissue
Doe males or females have more lean tissue? Males
Why does body water increase with age? People lose lean tissue as they age
Dissolved substances that disassociate in solution into electrically charged particles called ions Electrolytes
Which electrolytes are positively charged? Na+, K+
Which electrolytes are negatively charged? CL-, HPO4 2-
What are the predominant electrolytes in extracellular fluid? Sodium, Chloride
What are the predominant electrolytes in intracellular fluid? potassium, phosphorous
2 things that help regulate blood volume and BP Fluids, Kidneys
Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water, reducing urine Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Responds to decreased Blood pressure Renin
Increases Blood Pressure Angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor)
signals the kidneys to retain sodium and chloride, thereby retaining water, increasing blood pressure, and decreasing urine output Aldosterone
Fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord Cerebrospinal Fluid
Fluid that protects the fetus Amniotic
Fluid that lubricates the joints Synovial Fluid
Fluid that cleanses and lubricates eyes Tears
Fluid that moistens food for swallowing Saliva
permeable to water, but not freely permeable to electrolytes Cell Membranes
How does water move? By Osmosis
What is Osmosis Lower concentration to higher concentration
keeps electrolytes from drawing liquid toward them across a semipermeable membrane Osmotic Pressure
This enables nerves to respond to stimuli Electrolytes
Nerve impulses are initiated at nerve cell membranes in response to a change in _____ _____ across the membrane electrical charge
These electrolytes ensure that nerve impulses are generated, transmitted, nd completed: Na+ and K+
Excretion of water as urine and sweat during exercise or in a hot environment are examples of what? Sensible Water Loss
Excretion of water through skin (not sweating) or through lungs during exhalation are examples of what? Insensible Water Loss
Six sources of Drinking water Carbonated, Mineral, distilled, purified, tap, bottled
Leading cause of death around the world dehydration
What happens if we drink too much water? Dilution of blood sodium concentration
Electrolyte that affects BP, acid-base balance, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction and relaxation, glucose absorption from the small intestine. Sodium
AI of sodium 1,500 MG/ day
what is common with high sodium diets? high blood pressure
Abnormally high blood sodium concentration Hypernatremia
When a patient cannot effectively excrete sodium, it is likely they have one of two conditions: Congestive heart failure or kidney disease
When a patient cannot effectively excrete sodium exemplify symptoms of High blood volume, edema (swelling), and high blood pressure
Abnormally low blood sodium levels Hyponatremia
Occurs from prolonged sweating, vomiting, diarrhea Hyponatremia
Together with sodium, maintains fluid balance and regulates the contraction of muscles and transmission of nerve impulses Potassium
A high intake of this electrolyte helps maintain lower blood pressure Potassium
The main source of this is fresh fruits, veggies, legumes, and whole grains Potassium
Processed foods increases what and decreases what sat_flash_1? Sodium; Potassium
High Blood Potassium Levels Hyperkalemia
Can alter normal heart rhythm, resulting in heart attack and death Hyperkalemia
Low blook potassium levels Hypokalemia
Seen in people with kidney disease or diabetic ketoacidosis Hypokalemia
Can occur when taking certain diuretics and with extreme dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, alcohol abuse, long-term consumption of natural licorice (glycyrrhizic acid or GZA), or eating disorder (abnormal heart rhythms) Hyptokalemia
Aids digestion (HCL in the stomach); assists the immune system and in the transmission of nerve impulses Chloride
Hypertension in salt-sensitive individuals is a toxicity of Chloride
Required for fluid balance, critical role in bone formation, activates or deactivates enzymes Phosphorus
The activation or deactivation of enzymes with the use of phosphorus Phosphorylation
Found in ATP, DNA, RNA, cell membranes, and lipoproteins Phosphorus
Found in high protein foods: meat, milk, eggs. More readily absorbed from animal sources Phosphorus
The plant storage form of Phosphorus Phytic Acid
What happens if you consume too much phosphorus? Muscle spasms, convulsions
When fluid loss exceeds fluid intake, this occurs Dehydration
Who is at increased risk for dehydration? Elderly and Infants
Condition when kidneys retain too much water, causing overhydration and hyponatremia Water Intoxication
An imbalance in this can alter nervous system and muscle function Electrolytes
Beta-Carotene is a phytochemical classified as a cartenoid
Expressed in food as Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE), which indicates how much active vitamin A is available to the body after conversion Beta-Carotene
Weak antioxidant; fights lipid oxidation in cell membranes; enhances immune system; protects skin from UV-ray damage Beta-Carotene
Not an essential nutrient; doesn't have an RDA nor does it have an AI Beta Carotene
Red, orange, yellow, and deep green fruits and vegetables are the food sources of this Beta-Carotene
What improves digestibility and absorption of Beta-Carotene? Heat
reversible and harmless skin condition in which the skin pigment turns orange carotenosis
Active forms of Vitamin A Retinol, Retinal, and Retinoic acid
Where is Vitamin A mostly stored? In the Liver
Vision,sexual reproduction, bone health, immune system Retinol and Retinal
Cell differentiation, bone health, immune function Retinoic Acid
Antioxidant, scavenges free radicals and protects LDL from oxidation; sperm production and fertilization Vitamin A
Food Sources: animal (liver, egs, dairy, fortified foods)
plants (darkgreen, orange, and deep yellow fruits and veggies)
Vitamin A
Which vitamin is highly toxic? A
night blindness, xerophthalmia, hyperkeratosis, impaired immunity, failure of normal growth Deficiency of Vitamin A
antioxidant Part of glutathione peroxidase enzyme system and spares vitamin E Selenium
Thyroxine production, basal metabolism, body temperature Selenium
Sources: organ meats, pork, seafood Selenium
Keshan Disease, Kashin Beck Disease, Impaired immunity. Selenium Deficiency
Brittle hair and nails, skin rashes, vomiting, nausea, weakness, cirrhosis of the liver Toxicity of selenium
3 antioxidants that are part of the superoxide dismutase enzyme antioxidant complex copper, zinc, and manganese
Leading cause of death in adults. US. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
what is atherosclerosis? hardening of the arteries
Scavenge free radicals
Reduce low-grade inflammation
Reduce blood coagulation and clot formation
Vitamin E and lycopene
Leading cause of blindness
Deterioration of center portion of retina
Loss of the ability to see details
macular degeneration
Damaged portion of eye’s lens (cloudy vision)
Impaired adjustment from dark to bright light
What are the fat soluble vitamins? A, D, E, and K
What is megadosing? taking 10 or more times the RDA or AI
What are not digested or broken down prior to absorption? Minerals
Which four minerals are important for fluid balance? Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorus, and Chloride
What are they two types of dietary irons? Heme and Non heme
Can fats be metabolized to generate ATP? Yes
What two things decrease zinc and iron absorption? Oxalic Acid and Tonins
What energy source is used for high intensity activity? Carbs
What energy source is used for low intensity activity? Fats (triglycerides)
In a healthy individual, how much of body weight should be made up of water? 50-70%
What does an influx of CA2+ into the muscle from the extracellular space result in? Muscle Contraction

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