study for HHH sixth grade science final

Question Answer
nucleus the control center of the cell, controls heredity of traits, known as brain of cell
mitochondria powerhouse of the cell, where energy is made
cell membrane controls the passage of nutrients in and out of the cell
chromosomes X shaped, made of DNA, in nucleus, contains protein recipes
cell wall only in plant cell, provides support
ribosomes reads recipes for making protein
chloroplast only in plant cells, where food is made and photosynthesis happens
vacuole stores water and nutrients
cytoplasm jelly-like fluid that holds organelles together and allows movement in the cell
DNA carries code which produces proteins and controls cell activity
endoplasmic reticulum transport system (transports ribosomes)
asexual reproduction a single cell reproduces alone by splitting
sexual reproduction an egg and sperm joining
fertilization the process of a sperm and egg making a zygote
number of chromosomes in human body cell 46
number of chromosomes in human sex cell 46
number of chromosomes passed on by a single parent 23
two types of cells egg and sperm
meiosis cell division that makes sex cells and produces eggs and sperms that have half the number of chromosomes
mitosis the process of cell division that results in the production of two identical cells from a single parent (identical twins)
hybrid Bb
pure recessive bb
pure dominant BB
phenotype physical appearance
genotype genetic make-up
genetic engineering transfering a gene from one organism to another
selective breeding choosing to mate two organisms to get desired results
genes segments of chromosomes that are recipes for specific traits
mutation the change in the sequence of the order of bases in a genetic code, result of abnormal cell division (cancer)
hydrogen bonds holds nitrogen bases together
nitrogen bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
deoxyribose sugar at the ends of the nitrogen bases
phosphate ends of DNA
order of cellular organization cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
drosophila fruit fly
male drosophila few or no stripes, small as adult, sex combs, round abdomen
female drosophila stripes, large as adult, no sex combs, pointy abdomen
make a wet-mount slide put liquid on slide, put on specimen, hold slide of 45 degree angle, drop cover slip
find total magnification multiply eyepiece by objective lens
weather daily conditions in the earth's atmosphere
climate weather in an area over a long period of time
meteorologist someone who studies and predicts conditions in the atmosphere
uneven heating the major cause for weather on earth
four factors that effect weather wind, heat energy, air pressure, moisture
how does weather generally move across the US air masses moving west to east
hydrosphere water
lithosphere earth
atmosphere air
troposphere the layer we live in
barometer measures air pressure in milibars (high) or inches of mercury (low)
anemometer measures wind speed in miles per hour or knots
sling sychrometer measures relative humidity in degrees first, then percent
wind vane measures wind direction in north, south, east, and west
thermometer measures temperature in degrees celsius
instruments for measuring weather weather balloons, wind sock, satalite, climate, clouds, dopplerator
air mass a large body of air that is described by its moisture, sat_flash_1, and temperature
gases in the earth and percentages 78% nitro, 21% oxygen, 1% other
continental tropical air mass over warm land, high temperature, and dry moisture
continental polar air mass over cold land, low temperature, and dry moisture
maritime tropical air mass over warm water, high temperature, and wet moisture
maritime polar air mass over cold water, low temperature, and wet moisture
front where two air masses meet. some sort of precipitation occurs
cold front line with triangles, heavy precipitation
warm front line with circles, light precipitation
stationary front line with triangles and circles, precipitation over many days
convection transfer of heat through air or liquid (hot air rises, cold air sinks) ((hot air balloon))
conduction transfer of heat through irect contact (your feet on a warm, sandy beach)
radiation transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves (sun bathing)
how does energy from the sun reach the earth? radiation
high air pressure brings clear, sunny, fair weather (at sea level)
low air pressure brings cloudy, wet, stormy weather (top of a mountain)
three things that effect air pressure elevation, temperature, water vapor
hurricanes form over warm water. evacuate, board up windows, and secure outdoor furniture
tornadoes form over land with high winds and low air pressure. seek shelter underground
thunderstorm produces strong winds, heavy clouds, lightening and thunder. seek shelter indoors
greenhouse effect when gases like co2 and methane trap heat on earth
global warming the earth's temperature slowly rising, caused by the burning of fossil fuels which creates greenhouse gases and cause unven heating, death, glaciers melting, and sea levels rising
fossil fuels remains of dead plants and animals that lived millions and millions of years ago, are non renewable, and are coal, oil, and natural gas
alternate energy sources solar power, wind power, biomass, tydopower, hydroelectricity, giothermal, nd nucleur power
ozone gases gases in the atmosphere ghat block harmful UVA and UVB rays
transpiration evaporation off of trees
simple machines help us do work
lever a rigid bar free to pivot about a fixed point called a fulcrum. (hammer)
inclined plane a flat, slanted surface (stairs or ramp)
wheel and axle made of two cylindrical objects fastened together and rotate on a common axis (door knob)
pully a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or steel cable wrapped around it (flag pole)
screw an inclined plane wrapped arounda cylinder (light bulb)
wedge thick on one end and tapers to a thin edge on the other (axe)
compound machine two or more simple machines working together
formula for speed speed = distance divided by time
balanced forces forces that keep the object's motion the same
unbalanced forces forces that change and objects motion
velocity speed in a given direction
acceleration speed up, slow down, or change direction
two factors of gravitational attraction mass and distance
friction opposes motion and slows things down
kinetic energy energy designed for movement (hitting a tennis ball)
potential energy stored energy effected by position (a golf ball on a tee)
gravity keeps planets in orbit
when on the moon your _____ stays the same but your ________ changes 1: mass 2:weight
renewable resource can be replaced by nature (paper)
non renewable resource cannot be replaced by nature (petrochemicals)
problem the question you ant to answer
hypothesis and educated guess
materials aupplies you need to conduct the experiment
variable factor being tested
control group does not recieve independant variable
experimental group recieves independant variable
conclusion the experiment results
find volume length times width times height
beaker measures volume in mL
graduated cylinder measures volume of liquid/solid in mL or cm3
triple beam balance measures mass in grams
newton spring scale measures force in newtons
pipet measures small amounts of liquid in mL
ruler measures length, width, and height in milimeters, centimeters, and meters
find volume of irregular shaped solid -pour 50mL of water into graduated cylinder (initial volume)-hold graduated cylinder on an angle and drop object in-read meniscus. this is your final volume-subtract initial volume from final volume-write volume in cubic centimeters

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