structure of body, chemistry, and cells

Question Answer
frontal/cranial divides body into anterior and posterior
sagittal divides body into right and left
midsagittal divides body into equal halves
transverse/horizontal divides body into upper and lower parts
superior/cranial inferior/caudal
anterior/ventral posterior/dorsal
medial lateral
proximal distal
superficial deep
dorsal cavity contains cranial and vertebral cavities
ventral cavity contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
thoracic cavity contains mediastinum and pleural cavities
abdominal cavity contains stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen
pelvic cavity contains reproductive organs, bladder, lower intestines
viscera internal organs
axial region head, neck and torso/trunk
appendicular region upper and lower extremities
normal pH of blood 7.35 – 7.45
normal pH of water 7.0
anatomy study of structure
physiology study of function
catabolism breakdown; from complex to building blocks
anabolism building; from basic to complex
survival needs nutrients, oxygen, water, stable body temperature, proper atmospheric pressure
water in body, by weight 60 – 80%
molecule made up of two or more atoms
atom smallest complete unit of matter
element substance from which all matter is made
solution components indistinguishable and homogeneous
suspension components separate from solvent, heterogeneous
colloid components separate from solvent, but evenly distributed throughout
ion electrically charged atom
cation positively charged ion
anion negatively charged ion
electrolyte compound that releases ions when in a solution
covalent bond shared electron, difficult to separate, doesn't dissolve easily in water
aqueous solution mixture with water as the solvent
hydrolysis larger molecules broken down by introduction of water
pH relative concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions
buffer chemical that prevents sharp changes in pH
isotope form of an element that has the same atomic number but a different atomic weight
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of and element's atoms
carbohydrate (CHO) carbon and water, found in sugars and starches
glycogen polysaccharide, storage form of glucose found in liver cells and skeletal muscle cells
triglycerides formed by glycerol and e fatty acids, store energy
phospholipids form cell membrane
cholesterol transport lipids and stabilize cell membrane
proteins large molecules of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
structural protiens collagen and keratin
collagen fibrous, holds many tissues together
keratin tough, waterproof fibers in outer layer of skin
functional proteins take part in chemical processes
enzymes organic catalysts
lock and key model each enzyme acts on a particular substrate
denaturation the alteration of any protein to the point that it can no longer function
inventor of the microscope Anton van Leeuwenhoek
mitosis somatic cell division
interphase DNA replicates
prophase chromosomes and spindle fibers appear, centrioles move
metaphase chromosomes align, spindle fibers attach
anaphase centromeres break, cleavage develops
telophase cell division complete
cytokinesis division of cytoplasm in telophase of mitosis
passive transport movement through cell membrane that does not require energy from the cell
diffusion movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to lower
osmosis diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
filtration passage of water & dissolved materials through a membrane under mechanical force
facilitated diffusion movement of materials across plasma membrane in direction of concentration gradient using transporters to move faster
active transport movement against the concentration gradient in living cells requiring energy from ATP
endocytosis bulk movement of material into a cell
phagocytosis large particles engulfed by plasma membrane and moved into cell
pinocytosis plasma membrane engulfs drops of fluid
exocytosis cell moves material out via vesicles
isotonic solutions with concentrations equal to concentration of cytoplasm
normal saline 0.9% salt
hypotonic solution that is less concentrated than intracellular fluid
hemolysis rupture of red blood cells in hypotonic solution
hypertonic solution that is more concentrated than intracellular fluid
crenation shrinking of a cell in hypertonic solution
apoptosis programmed cell death
nucleotide building block of DNA and RNA – phosphate & nitrogen base
sodium Na
hydrogen H
chlorine Cl
nitrogen N
carbon C
calcium Ca
Oxygen O
Potassium K
Magnesium Mg
Phosphate PO4
Bicarbonate HCO3
Water H2O

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