Structure & Function of the Cell

Question Answer
The process of diffusion is controlled by a _________ _________ Concentration Gradient
Cylindrically shaped extensions of the plasma membrane that function in absorption and as sensory receptors Microvilli
If a cell is placed in a _________ solution, crenation of the cell may occur. Hypertonic
If a cell is placed in a _________ solution, lysis of the cell may occur. Hypotonic
Filtration depends on a _________ on the two sides of the partition. Pressure Difference
A white blood cell ingests solid particles by forming vesicles. What process does this describe? Phagocytosis
This organelle produces large amounts of ATP Mitochondria
Mature red blood cells lack a _________ Nucleus
mRNA is synthesized in the _________ Nucleus
Integrins in the plasma membrane functions as _________ Attachment sites
Small pieces of matter, even whole cells, can be transported across the plasma membrane in _________ Vesicles
The resistance of a fluid to flow is known as _________ Viscosity
_________ is found outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Cytoplasm
Accounts for about 1/3 of total lipids and flexibility in the plasma membrane Cholesterol
Allows us to see "through" parts of the cell Transmission Electron Microscope
Allows us to see features of the cell surface and surfaces of internal structures Scanning Electron Microscope
Allows us to visualize the general features of cells Light Microscope
Cell surface molecules that allow cells to identify one another Marker Molecules
Form tiny channels through the plasma membrane Channel Proteins
Modern concept of the plasma membrane Fluid Mosaic Model
Small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins Ligands
Proteins which penetrate deeply into the lipid bilayer Intrinsic Proteins
Chemical reactions that take place within the cell; collectively Cell Metabolism
Cells produce and receive _________ and electrical signals to communicate with one another Chemical
Substances on the inside of the plasma membrane Intracellular
Substances on the outside of the plasma membrane Extracellular
The diffusion of water Osmosis
The regulation of ion movement by cells results in a charge across the membrane called the _________ Membrane Potential
Proteins that function as catalysts are called _________ Enzymes
Supports the cytoplasm and the organelles within the cell Cytoskeleton
Outer boundary of the cell that controls entry and exit of substances Plasma Membrane
Composed of carbohydrates and lipids Glycolipids
Composed of carbohydrates and proteins Glycoproteins
Collection of glycolipids, glycoproteins and carbohydrates on the outer surface of the plasma membrane Glycocalyx
Phospholipids readily assemble to form a _________ because they have a polar head and nonpolar tail. Lipid Bilayer
Small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins Ligands
Genetic disorder that affects the chloride ion channels. Cystic Fibrosis
The substance in a solution present in the largest amount Solvent
The substance which dissolves in another to form a solution Solute
Molecules that are soluble in _______ pass through the plasma membrane readily by dissolving through Lipids
Substances that are transported across the cell membrane by carrier molecules are said to be transported by _______ processes Carrier-Mediated
Movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration in solution Diffusion
Force required to prevent the movement of water by osmosis across a selectively permeable membrane Osmotic Pressure
Solutions that have the same concentration of solute particles, have the same osmotic pressure and are called _______ Isosmotic
Considering the concentration of two solutions: the solution with greater osmotic pressure is called _______ Hyperosmotic
Considering the concentration of two solutions: the more dilute solution is referred to as being Considering the concentration of two solutions: the solution with greater osmotic pressure is called _______ Hyposmotic
Shrinking of a cell Crenation
Rupture of a cell Lysis
Results when a partition containing small holes is placed in a stream of moving liquid Filtration
_______ involves carrier proteins within the plasma membrane that move large, water soluble molecules or electrically charged molecules across the plasma membrane Mediated Transport Mechanisms
Each carrier protein binds to and transports only a single type molecule Specificity
Result of similar molecules binding to the carrier protein Competition
_______ means that the rate of transport of molecules across the membrane is limited by the number of available carrier proteins Saturation
_______ is a carrier-mediated process that moves substances into or out of the cells from higher to lower concentration Facilitated Diffusion
_______ is a mediated transport process that requires energy provided by ATP Active Transport
Some active transport mechanisms _______ one substance for another Exchange
_______ involves the active transport of an ion such as sodium out of a cell, establishing a concentration gradient, with higher concentration of the ions outside the cell Secondary Active Transport
Secondary active transport where movement is in the same direction Cotransport
Secondary active transport where movement is in opposite direction Countertransport
Internalization of substances Endocytosis
Externalization of substances Exocytosis
"Cell eating" Phagocytosis
"Cell drinking" Pinocytosis
Genetic disorder which consists of the reduction in or absence of low density lipoprotein receptors on the cell surface Hypercholesterolemia
Fluid portion of the cytosplasm Cytosol
Hollow tubules composed of protein unites called tubulin Microtubules
Supports the cell and holds the nucleus and organelles in place Cytoskeleton
Small fibrils that form bundles, sheets or networks in the cytoplasm of cells Actin Filaments
Protein fibers providing mechanical strength to cells Intermediate Filaments
Aggregates of chemicals either produced by the cell or taken in by the cell Cytoplasmic inclusions
Pigments that increase in amount with age Lipochromes
Specialized region on each chromosome which the spindle fiber attaches to Kinetochore
Located in the cytoplasm at the base of the cilia Basal body
Proteins connecting adjacent pairs of microtubules Dynein Arms
Sites of protein synthesis Ribosomes
Primarily synthesize proteins used inside the cell Free Ribosomes
Synthesize proteins that are secreted from the cell ER Ribosomes
Interior spaces of ER which are isolated from the rest of the cytoplasm Cisternae
Cilia move in two motions; power stroke and the _______ Recovery Stroke
Composed of flattened membrane sacs that are stacked on each other like dinner plates Golgi Apparatus
A _______ vesicle moves to the Golgi apparatus, fuses and releases protein into its cisternae Transport
Secretory vesicles generally do not release their sat_flash_1s to the outside until a _______ is received Signal
Contain various hydrolytic enzymes and function as intracellular digestive systems Lysosomes
Digestion of organelles by lysosomes Autophagia
Results from inability of lysosomal enzymes breaking down glycogen Pompe's Disease
Disorder in which lysosomal enzymes are unable to break down mucopolysaccharides Hurler's Syndrome
Substance located int he space formed by the inner membrane of the mitochondria Matrix
Numerous infoldings that project like shelves into the interior of the mitochondria Cristae
Break down and recycle proteins Proteasomes
Openings withing the nuclear envelope Nuclear Pores
Proteins which play a role in the regulation of DNA function Histones
Densely coiled genetic material Chromosomes
Intermediate form of DNA Ribonucleic Acid
Total of all the genes contained within each cell Genome
Site of ribosome synthesis Nucleolus
Chemical reactions that convert the glucose to pyruvic acid Glycolysis
Pyruvic acid is converted to ATP when oxygen is available Aerobic Respiration
Pyruvic acid is converted to ATP and lactic acid when oxygen is not available Anaerobic Respiration
DNA is _______, which means that the strands are parallel but extend in opposite directions Antiparallel

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