Slides 3-end(1,2,3 separate)

Question Answer
Tissues are ? collection of structurally similar cells with related function
The entire body is composed of only four major types of tissues, which are ? Muscle, Nervous, Epithelial, Connective tissues
organs Groupings of the four primary tissues into anatomical and functional units
systems Organs may be grouped together by common functions
Muscle is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells
Muscle is classified as? skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle, and its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs
Skeletal muscle a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement, by applying force to bones and joints; via contraction
Smooth muscle found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, and blood vessels, and unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is not under conscious control
Cardiac muscle an "involuntary muscle" but is a specialized kind of muscle found only within the heart
Skeletal muscle has _____, striated cells with ___________ _____________ Long, mutltiple nuclei
Smooth muscle has ________ , spindle shaped cells, each with a _____ _________ Long, single nucleus

found in hollow organces

Cardiac muscle has branching, _____ ______ fused at ______ ______ striated cells
plasma membrane
Nervous tissue is specialized to? react to stimuli and to conduct impulses to various organs in the body which bring about a response to the stimulus
Nerve tissue (as in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that branch throughout the body) are all made up of ? specialized nerve cells called neurons
Neurons are easily stimulated and? transmit impulses very rapidly
. A sheath of dense connective tissue, the ________ surrounds the nerve epineurium
endoneurium which consists of a thin layer of loose connective tissue, surrounds the individual nerve fibers
perineurium surrounds bundles of nerve fibers
Functions of Epithelial Tissue Protection
Sensation Sensory stimuli
Reduces Friection
secretion in glands
Epithelial cells from the skin protect underlying tissue from ? mechanical injury, harmful chemicals, invading bacteria and from excessive loss of water
Epithelial tissue allows for Sensation Sensory stimuli which penetrate specialized epithelial cells. Specialized epithelial tissue containing sensory nerve endings is found in the skin, eyes, ears, nose and on the tongue
Epithelial tissue function of Secretion In glands secrete specific chemical substances such as enzymes, hormones
Epithelial tissue function of Absorption Certain epithelial cells lining the small intestine absorb nutrients from the digestion of food
Epithelial tissue function of Excretion Epithelial tissues in the kidney excrete waste products from the body and reabsorb needed materials from the urine. Sweat is also excreted from the body by epithelial cells in the sweat glands
Epithelial tissue function of Diffusion Simple epithelium promotes the diffusion of gases, liquids and nutrients. Because they form such a thin lining, they are ideal for the diffusion of gases (eg. walls of capillaries and lungs).
Epithelial tissue function of Cleaning Ciliated epithelium assists in removing dust particles and foreign bodies which have entered the air passages
Epithelial tissue function of Reducing Friction The smooth, tightly-interlocking, epithelial cells that line the entire circulatory system reduce friction between the blood and the walls of the blood vessels.
Epithelia sheets of cells that cover body surfaces and cavities
function of epiphelial tissue is to protect the body
(such as the skin) or sensory reception such as the olfactory epithelial cells as well as ______
absorption, such as the internal covering cells of the intestine, ion transport and filtration, like the cells covering various tubules in the kidney
Epiphelial Glands covered internally by epithelial cells which function
in secretion of their products
Epithelial cells are classified according to their shape into 1- Squamous (flat)
2- Cuboidal (cube like)
3- Columnar (tall and rod-like)
Epithelial cells are further classified by number of cell layers into? 1- Simple (only one layer), 2- Stratified (multiple layers)

The stratified epithelia are named according to the shape of the apical cells

Stratified More than one layer of cells. The superficial layer is used to classify the layer. Only one layer touches the basal lamina. Stratified cells can usually withstand large amounts of stress
Pseudostratified with cilia This is used mainly in one type of classification (pseudostratified columnar epithelium). There is only a single layer of cells, but the position of the nuclei gives the impression that it is stratified
Gases and other substances can easily diffuse across ________ ______ to the underlying basement membrane, and because of their smooth surface, liquids can quickly flow over them squamous cells
simple squamous epithelia are seen lining body cavities and capillaries to reduce friction, as well as lining the alveoli to facilitate gas exchange
A simple squamous epithelium is characterized by the ? the presence of squamous cells which are all in contact with the basement membrane
_____________ ____________ are irregularly shaped and very flat; so flat that the cell nucleus sometimes creates a bump in the surface of the cell The surface squamous cells
Function of Simple cuboidal epithelium secretion and absorption
Location of Simple cuboidal epithelium found in glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. They also constitute the germinal epithelium which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes.
Function of Simple columnar epithelium They secrete mucus or slime, a lubricating substance which keeps the surface smooth
Location of Simple columnar epithelium lining of the stomach and intestines. Some columnar cells are specialised for sensory reception such as in the nose, ears and the taste buds of the tongue. Goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum
Function of Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Secretion, mucus
Location of Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Ducts of large glands, Ciliated variety lines the trachea, most upper respiratory tract
Stratified cuboidal epithelia are multi-layered.
They protect areas such as ducts of sweat glands and the male urethra
Function of Stratified cuboidal epithelia Protection
Stratified columnar epithelium Are several cell layers.

Function: Protection, secretion

Location: small amount in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands.

Stratified squemous epithelium Location: vagina
Exocrine glands glands that retain ducts to body surfaces
Endocrine glands referred to as "ductless" glands
Endocrine and exocrine glands secrete hormones, enzymes, metabolites, and other molecules
In exocrine glands, products of these cells collect in the duct of the gland and flow toward? the surface to which the duct is in contact.  
endocrine glands products are released into? interstitial spaces around cells followed by diffusion into capillaries
the pancreas is part exocrine and part endocrine because? endocrine=producing insulin and glucagon/other hormones
exocrine=secretes enzymes responsible for food breakdown and digestionn
Most glands release their products by the ____________ method merocrine
Mammary glands release their products by the _________ method apocrine
Sebaceous (oil for hair/skin) glands use the Holocrine method of secretion involves cell death to release secretory product
Controlling of smooth muscle is by ? autonomic nervous system
tight junctions joining the cytoskeletons of the adjacent cells
Gap junctions 1- passageway between two adjacent cells

2- they let small molecules move directly between neighboring cells

3- cells are connected by hollow cylinders of protein

connective tissue serves a "connecting" function. It supports and binds other tissues. Unlike epithelial tissue, connective tissue typically has cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
Marfan syndrome autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue
characteristics of Marfan syndrome disproportionately long limbs, long thin fingers, a relatively tall stature, and a predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalities, specifically those affecting the heart valves and aorta
pathogenisis of Marfan syndrome linked to a defect in the gene on chromosome 15 which encodes a glycoprotein called fibrillin-1.
Fibrillin is essential for the formation of the elastic fibers found in connective tissue
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting humans and domestic animals caused by a defect in collagen synthesis (Collagen I and III).*
Body fluids 67% in intracellular compartment(within cells)
33% of body water in extracellular compartment
20% in vessels of cardio system(blood plasma)
Role of the blood -oxygen from lungs to body cells
co2 from body to lungs
-transport nutrients from food in intestines to body cells
-glucose from liveer to brain
-lactic acid from muscles to liver
-metabolic waste from body to liver and kindneys for elimination
80% of the extracellular fluid is located outside of the vascular system and comprises? tissue fluid, also called interstitial fluid
Extracellular matrix fluids of environment outside cells (interstitial or tissue fluids) is found within a matrix of GLYCOPROTEINS OR PROTEOGLYCANS-consists of protein fibers COLLAGEN AND ELASTIN.
The fluid of the extracellular matrix is derived from? blood plasma, provides nutrients and regulatory molecules to the cells. The extracellular environment is supported by collagen and elastin protein fibers, which also from the basal lamina below epithelial membranes.
integrins -class of glycoproteins
-extend from cytok skeleton within cell through plasma matrix into extracellular matrix
-serve as adhesion molecule between cells and extracellular matrix
carrier-mediated transport transport that requires the action of specific carrier proteins in the membrane,

can be either:
a. facilitated diffusion
b. active transport

transport through the membrane that is not carrier mediated involves the simple diffusion of ions, lipid-soluble molecules, and water through the membrane, Osmosis is the net diffusion of solvent (water) through a membrane.
Passive transport the net movement of molecules and ions across a membrane from higher to lower concentration, it does not require metabolic energy
Passive transport includes ? simple diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.
Active transport net movement across a membrane that occurs against a concentration gradient (to the region of higher concentration). Active transport requires metabolic energy (ATP) and involves specific carrier proteins.
Characteristics of simple diffusion -is the only form of transport that is not carrier-mediated. -occurs down and electrochemical gradient (downhill) -does not require metabolic energy and therefore is passive.
Permeability Describes the ease with which a solute diffuses through a membrane. -depends on the characteristics of the solute and the membrane.
Factors that increase permeability: -high oil/water partition coefficient of the solute increases solubility in the lipid of the membrane. -decrease radius (size) of the solute increases the speed of diffusion. -decrease membrane thickness decreases the diffusion distance.
Small hydrophobic solutes have the highest permeabilities in? lipid membranes
Hydrophilic solutes must cross cell membranes through water-filled channels, or pores.

If the solute is an ion, then its flux will depend on both the concentration difference and the potential difference across the membrane.

Stereospecificity example, D-glucose (the natural isomer) is transported by facilitated diffusion, but the L-glucose isomer is not. Simple diffusion, however, would not distinguish between the two isomers because it does not involve a carrier
Saturation The transport rate increases as the concentration of the solute increases, until the carriers are saturated. The transport maximum (™) is analogous to the maximum velocity (V max) in enzyme kinetics.
Competition Structurally related solutes compete for transport sites on carrier molecules. For example, galactose is a competitive inhibitor of glucose transport in the small intestine
Characteristics of facilitated diffusion -occurs down electrochemical gradient (downhill), similar to simple diffusion. -doesn't require metabolic energy-is passive. –is more rapid than simple diffusion. -is carrier-mediated and therefore exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition.
Example of facilitated diffusion -glucose transport in muscle and adipose cells in downhill is carrier-mediated, and is inhibited by sugars such as galactose, therefore, it is categorized as facilitated diffusion.
In diabetes mellitus, glucose uptake by muscle and adipose cells is impaired because? the carriers for facilitated diffusion of glucose require insulin.
characteristics of primary active transport occurs against an electrochemical gradient (uphill). -requires direct input of metabolic energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and therefore is active. -is carrier-mediated and therefore exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition
Primary Active Transport:
Na+, and K+ (pump)
cell membranes transports Na+ from intracellular to extracellular fluid and K+ from extracellular to IC fluid.
-maintains low intracellular Na+, high intracellular K+.
-Na+ and K+ transported against electrochemical gradients.
Primary Active Transport:
Ca2+-ATPase (or Ca2+ pump)
the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) or cell membrane transports Ca2+ against an electrochemical gradient
Primary Active Transport:
H+, K+-ATPase (or proton pump)
in gastric parietal cells transports H+ into lumen of the stomach against its electrochemical gradient. -It is inhibited by omeprazole.
Stoichiometry of NA+ and K+ pump The stoichiometry is 3 Na+/2 K+. -Specific inhibitors of Na+, K+-atpase are the cardiac glycoside drugs ouabain and digitals.
. Characteristics of secondary active transport -transport of two or more solutes coupled
-One of solutes(Na+) is transported downhill, provides energy for uphill transport of the other solute(s).
-Metabolic energy not provided directly, but indirectly from Na+ gradient maintained across cell membran
, inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase will decrease transport of Na+ out of the cell, decrease the transmembrane Na+ gradient, and eventually inhibit ? secondary active transport
If the solutes move in the same direction across the cell membrane
EXAMPLE OF COTRANSPORT OR SYMPORT Na+-glucose cotransport in the small intestine and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the renal thick ascending limb.
countertransport, exchange, or antiport If the solutes move in opposite directions across the cell membranes

Example: Na+-Ca2+ exchange

Osmolarity concentration of osmotically active particles in a solution. -is a colligative property can be measured by freezing point depression.
isosmotic Two solutions that have the same calculated osmolarity
The solution with the higher osmolarity is ? hyperosmotic
the solution with the lower osmolarity is? hyposmotic
Osmosis and osmotic pressure the flow of water across a semipermeable membrane from a solution with low solute concentration to a solution with high solute concentration
Example of osmosis Solution 1 contains large solute and has higher osmotic pressure
Solution 2 is pure water
-pressure difference cause water to flow from sol2 to sol1
-with time, volume of solution 1 increases, vol of 2 decreases
osmosis my example solution with more solutes needs to be diluted, so higher pressure osmotic pressure means it needs to absorb more, will take from lower pressure and gain volume, WHY YOUR BLOATED WHEN YOU EAT TOO MUCH SALT
Osmotic pressure increases when? solute concentration increases
solution with the higher effective osmotic pressure is hypertonic and the solution with the lower effective osmotic pressure is? hypotonic.

Water flows from the hypotonic to the hypertonic solution.

Reflection coefficient (RC) is a number between zero and one that describes the ease with which a solute permeates a membrane
Serum albumin (a large solute) has a reflection coefficient of ? nearly one

. If the RC is one, the solute is *impermeable. Therefore, it is retained in the original solution, it creates an osmotic pressure, and it causes water flow

Urea (a small solute) has a reflection coefficient of close to ? zero and it is, therefore, an ineffective osmole
Cystic fibrosis result of a genetic defect, abnormal NaCl and water movement occurs across wet epithelial membranes
What happens to organs in CF? membranes line the pancreatic ductules and small respiratory airways, they produce a dense, viscous mucus that cannot be properly cleared, which may lead to pancreatic and pulmonary disorders
Genetics and CF defect of particular glycoprotein that forms chloride (Cl-) channels in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells. This protein known as(cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is formed in the usual manner in the endoplasmic reticulum
IN CF, CFTR is formed in endoplasmic reticulum but it doesn't move into the _________ _________ for processing Golgi complex

it doesn’t get correctly processed and inserted into vesicles that would introduce it into the cell membrane

Pathophysiology of CF mutation in CFTR gene
protein created by gene anchored to outer membrane of cells in sweat glands, lung, pancreas,other affected organs
protein spans membrane,acts as channel connecting cytoplasm to surrounding fluid
channel affected by CF is primarily responsible for controlling the movement of chloride from inside to outside of the cell. When the CFTR protein does not work, chloride is trapped outside the cell
Regulation of blood osmolality When a person becomes dehydrated, the blood becomes more concentration as the total volume is reduced.
Step 1 in Regulation of blood osmolality 1. Increased plasma osmolality stimulates osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus of the brain.
Step 2 in Regulation of blood osmolality 2. The osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus then stimulate a tract of axons that terminate in the posterior pituitary; this causes the posterior pituitary to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH) into the blood.
Step 3 in Regulation of blood osmolality 3. ADH acts on the kidneys to promote water retention, so that a lower volume of more concentrated urine is excreted.
Edema If a person has an abnormally low concentration of plasma proteins, excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues- a condition called edema will result
ex. of edema may occur, for example, when a damaged liver as in cirrhosis is unable to produce sufficient amounts of albumin, the major protein in the blood plasma
Hyperglycemia glucose concentration of the blood and filtrate is too high
glucose will be found in the urine (glycosuria). This may result from the consumption of too much sugar or from inadequate action of the hormone insulin in the disease diabetes mellitus.
Hypoglycemia rate of the facilitated diffusion of glucose into tissue cells depends directly on the plasma glucose concentration. When the plasma glucose concentration is abnormally low- is called hypoglycemia.
Oral rehydration therapy effective for diarrhea
absorption of h2o by osmosis across intestine is proportion to na+
intestinal epithelium cotransports Na+ and glucose

glucose promotes cotransport of na+ and na+ promotes osmotic movement of h2o from intestine to blood

Ion channels are integral proteins that span the membrane and, when open, permit the passage of certain ions.
The higher the probability that a channel is open, the higher the?
conductance, or pemeability
The activation gate of the Na+ channel in nerve is opened by ?
depolarization; when open, the nerve membrane is permeable to Na+.
The inactivation gate of the Na+ channel in nerve is closed by ?
repolarization; when closed, the nerve membrane is impermeable to Na+ (e.g., during the repolarization phase of the nerve action potential).
Ligand-gated channels open or closed by hormones, second messengers, or neurotransmitters.
A diffusion potential potential difference generated across a membrane because of a concentration difference of an ion
A diffusion potential can be generated only if the membrane is ? is permeable to the ion.
The equilibrium potential is the diffusion potential that exactly balances (opposes) the tendency for diffusion caused by a concentration differences.
Ex's of equilibrium potential 1. Example of a Na+ diffusion potential (NaCl)
2. Example of a Cl- diffusion potential
Approximate values for equilibrium potential in nerve and muscle:
Approximate values for equilibrium potential in nerve and muscle:
Approximate values for equilibrium potential in nerve and muscle:
Approximate values for equilibrium potential in nerve and muscle:
Resting membrane potential -expressed as measured potential difference across cell membrane in millivolts (mV).
-expressed as the intracellular potential relative to the extracellular potential. Thus, a resting membrane potential of -70 mV means 70mV, cell negative
Action potential:
makes the membrane potential less negative (the cell interior becomes less negative).
Action potential:
____________ makes the membrane potential more negative (the cell interior becomes more negative)
Action potential:
____________ is the flow of positive charge into the cells. Inward current depolarizes the membrane potential
Inward current
Action potential:
Outward current is the ?
Outward current is the flow of positive charge out of the cell. Outward current hyperpolarizes the membrane potential
ACTION POTENTIAL a property of excitable cells (nerve, muscle) that consists of a rapid depolarization, or upstroke, followed by repolarization of the membrane potential. Action potentials have stereotypical size and shape, are propagating, and are all-or-none
Threshold the membrane potential at which the action potential is inevitable.
If the inward current depolarizes the membrane to threshold, it produces an ? action potential
Ionic basis of the nerve action potential :
Resting membrane potential
-is approximately -70mV, cell negative. -is the rest of the high resting conductance to K+, which drives the membrane potential toward the K+ equilibrium potential. -At rest, the Na+ channels are closed and Na+ conductance is low
Absolute refractory period period during which another action potential cannot be elicited, no matter how large the stimulus
Relative refractory period -begins at the end of the absolute refractory period and continues until the membrane potential returns to the resting level. -An action potential can be elicited during this period only if a larger than usual inward current is provided.
Accommodation the cell membrane is held at a depolarized level such that the threshould potential is passed without firing an action potential

happens in hyperkaemia, depolarized by serum k+ conc, causes muscle weakness

Conduction velocity is increased by . Increased fiber size
General characteristics of chemical synapses:
1. An action potential in the presynaptic cell causes?
depolarization of the presynaptic terminal
General characteristics of chemical synapses:
2. As a result of the depolarization, Ca2+enters the presynaptic terminal, causing?
release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
General characteristics of chemical synapses:
3. Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and combines with receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane, causing?
a change in its permeability to ions and, consequently, a change in its membrane potential.
General characteristics of chemical synapses:
4. Inhibitory neurotransmitters hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane; excitatory neurotransmitters depolarize ?
the postsynaptic membrane
Disease-myasthenia gravis CAUSED BY? presence of antibodies to the Ach receptors
Disease-myasthenia gravis CHARACTERIZED BY skeletal muscle weakness and fatigability resulting from reduced number of Ach receptors on the muscle end plate.
-size of the EPP is reduced; it is more difficult to depolarize the muscle membrane to threshold and to produce action potentials.
TREATMENT OF Disease-myasthenia gravis AChE inhibitors
One to one Synaptic transmission an action potential in the presynaptic element (the motor nerve) produces an action potential in the postsynaptic element (the muscle).
Input to synapses caused by opening of channels that are permeable to Na+ and K+, similar to Ach channels. Example ENT: include Ach, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, glutamate and serotonin
Norepinephrine primary transmitter released from postganglionic sympathetic neurons. -is synthesized in the nerve terminal and released into the synapse to bind with alpha or beta receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. -is removed from the synapse by reuptake
pheochromocytoma urinary excretion of VMA is increased
Epinephrine -is synthesized from norepinephrine by the action of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase. -is secreted, along with norepinephrine, from the adrenal medulla.
Dopamine prominent in midbrain neurons. -is released from the hypothalamus and inhibits prolactin secretion. -is metabolized by MAO and COMT.

Involved in problem sovlving

Parkinson's involves degeneration of dopaminergic neurons that use the D2 receptors.
____________ involves increased levels of D2 receptors. Schizophrenia
Serotonin -is present in high concentrations in the brain stem. -is formed tryptophan. -is converted to melatonin in the pineal gland.
protons positive, mass 1836 greater than electrons
neutrons same size as protons
Atomic Mass sum of the proton and neutrons in an atom is equal to the atomic mass of the atom
Atomic number number of protons in an atom is given as its atomic number
EX: Carbon has six protons and thus has an atomic number of 6
Isotopes the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons
Covalent bond bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.
Ionic bond bond in which one or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom, resulting in positive and negative ions which attract each othe
Acids ionic compounds ( a compound with a positive or negative charge) that break apart in water to form a hydrogen ion (H+).
The more H+ the ? STRONGER THE ACID
Bases *Bases are ionic compounds that break apart to form a negatively charged hydroxide ion (OH-) in water.
The greater the concentration of OH- ions the ? stronger the base
Carbohydrates -major source of energy for body
-composed of C, H, O
-energy in form of kcal, avg 4kcal per gram
-smallest carb-simple sugars
Sugars used to provide energy for the body include? glucose, sucrose, fructose

need to be broken down by enzymes

carbs are the body's sugar source

Galactosemia inherited autosomal recessive trait that affects the way the sugar galactose is broken down, due to the lack of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase

In ____________ galactose then builds up and becomes toxic. In reaction to this build up of galactose the body makes some abnormal chemicals. Galactosemia
clinical signs and symptoms of Galactosemia The build up of galactose and the other chemicals can cause serious health problems: -swollen and inflamed liver -kidney failure -ovarian failure in girls -mental growth -cataracts in the eyes
Treatment of Galactosemia The treatment for galactosemia is to restrict galactose and lactose from the diet for life.
* if protein and caloric intake are both inadequate, a condition known as ___________ occurs Marasmus
– presents with a stoppage of growth, extreme muscle loss, and weakness
Marasmus a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition characterized by energy deficiency. Cachexia

Clinical signs of Marasmus dry skin, loose skin folds hanging over the gluti, axillae
loss of adipose tissue from normal areas of fat deposits like buttocks and thighs
fretful, irritable, and voraciously hungry.
alternate bands of pigmented and depigmented hair
flaky/peeling s
Triglycerides are the major form of ? energy storage
Are Lipids, and can be broken down into two types, saturated and unsaturated, based on the chemical structure of their longest, and therefore dominant, fatty acid.
The important difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids saturated fatty acids are the most important factor that can increase a person's cholesterol level. An increased cholesterol level may eventually result in the clogging of blood arteries and, ultimately, heart diseas
essential fatty acids serve many important functions in the body, including ? regulating blood pressure and helping to synthesize and repair vital cell parts.
Lipid disorder medical term for high blood cholesterol and triglycerides is lipid disorder
occurs when you have too many fatty substances in your blood
substances include cholesterol,triglycerides
lipiddisorderincreases your risk for atherosclerosis and heart disea
In the brain _____________ are a vital source in fasting Ketone bodies
Ketone bodies are three water soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain.
The three ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone, although beta-hydroxybutyrate is not technically a ketone but a carboxylic acid
ketosis. excess ketone bodies accumulate, this abnormal (but not necessarily harmful
When even larger amounts of ketone bodies accumulate such that the body's pH is lowered to dangerously acidic levels
When ketone bodies are released they enter the bloodstream, acidify the blood, and are eventually excreted mostly in urine
Without treatment, glucose and ketone bodies may build to dangerous levels in the blood.
Stress and illness can increase the risk of glucose and ketone buildup
Symptoms of glucose and ketone-body overload include: -Thirst, frequent urination -Dehydration -Nausea, vomiting -Heavy breathing

Dilation of the pupils
A breath odor resembling the smell of fruit

Treatment OF glucose and ketone-body overload with insulin and intravenous fluids can restore normal levels of blood sugar and end ketoacidosis and ketonuria
Steroids steroids differ considerably from triglycerides or phospholipids, cholesterol is an important molecule in the body because it serves as the precursor for the steroid hormones produced by gonads and adrenal cortex.
___________are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Prostaglandins are found in virtually all tissues and organs Prostaglandins
Role of the prostaglandins cause constriction or dilatation in vascular smooth muscle cells -sensitize spinal neurons to pain -constrict smooth muscle -regulate inflammatory mediation -regulate calcium movement -regulate hormone regulation -control cell growth
Enzymes as Catalysts a subclass of proteins. ex: ribozymes function as enzymes in reactions involving remodeling of the RNA molecules themselves, and in the formation of a growing polypeptide in ribosomes. Functionally, enzymes (and ribozymes) are biological catalysts
A catalyst is a chemical that: 1. increases the rate of a reaction 2. is not itself changed at the end of the reaction 3. does not change the nature of the reaction or its final result
The amount of energy required for a reaction to proceed is called the ? activation energy
Almost all processes in a biological cell need ___________ in order to occur at signifigant rates enzymes
Inhibitors molecules that decrease enzyme activity; Many drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors
Activators molecules that increase activity
An increase in temperature will ________ the rate of non-enzyme-catalyzed reactions increase
Cofactors In these enzymes, the attachment of cofactors causes a conformational change in the protein that allow it to combine with its substrate
Coenzymes organic molecules,derived from water soluble vitamins(niaci) and riboflavin) needed for function of particular enzymes. Coenzymes participate in enzyme-catalyzed reactions by transporting hydrogen atoms and small molecules from one enzyme to another.
The atom or molecule that donates electrons to another is a? reducing agent
Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in a chain of oxidation-reduction reactions that provides energy for ATP production
Oxidation-reduction reactions in cells often involve the transfer of hydrogen atoms rather than free electrons. Since? a hydrogen atom contains one electron (and one proton in the nucleus), a molecule that loses hydrogen becomes oxidized, and one that gains hydrogen becomes reduced
Electron transport chain
cont'd from back
After protons diffuse back to the matrix, their energy is used to make 32ATP
series of elctron acceptors and proton pumps in membranes of mitochondrial cristae
-accept high energy electrons from NADH and FADH 2.
As electrons pass through ETC, their energy is used to pump protons(H+) from matrix to outer compartment.cont'd on fro
Oxygen is final electron acceptor in? ETC

allows aerobic respiration to continue

Chemiosmosis creates 32 atp
Electron Transport: a) Occurs at cristae (Inner membranes) b) NADH & FADH2 deliver H+ and e- to cristae. c) Electrons "transport" along cristae through electron acceptors, provide energy to pump H+ from matrix to outer compartment. d.Concentration of H+ now higher in outer compartment.H+ pass through ATP synthases in cristae back to matrix.ATP made. Known as chemiosmosis. e.Last step involves H+&e- added to oxygen.Frees NAD+ to return to glycolysis&KrebsCycle to pick up more H+&e-
lipase, enzymes hydrolyze triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids in? process called lipolysis
Brown fat major site for thermogenesis in the newborn
-around the kidneys and adrenal glands.
-around the blood vessels of the chest and neck
Brown fat produces a unique uncoupling protein

This protein causes H+ to leak out of the inner mitochondrial membrane, so that less H+ is available to pass through the respiratory assemblies and drive ATP synthase activity
because of this….

Lower ATP concentrations cause the electron-transport system to be more active and generate more heat from the respiration of fatty acids. This extra heat may be needed to prevent hypothermia in newborns.
The blood contains a variety of energy sources from which to draw: glucose and ketone bodies that come from the liver, fatty acids from adipose tissue, and lactic acid and amino acids from muscles.
The brain uses blood glucose as its major energy source. Under fasting conditions, blood glucose is supplied primarily by the liver through: glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
Metabolism All of the reactions in the body that involve energy transformation
Metabolism is the complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. These processes are the basis OF? life, allowing cells to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.
Catabolism release energy, usually by the breakdown of larger organic molecules into smaller molecules.

The catabolic reactions that break down glucose, fatty acids, the amino acids serve as the primary sources of energy for the synthesis of ATP.

Anabolism reactions require the input of energy and include the synthesis of large energy-storage molecules, including glycogen, fat, and protein.
Aerobic cell respiration Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy (ATP). It is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown from glycolysis and requires that pyruvate enter the mitochondrion to be fully oxidized by the Krebs cycle.
Product of Aerobic cell respiration energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH
Glycolysis metabolic pathway by which glucose-a six-carbon sugar is converted into to molecules of pyruvic acid,or pyruvate. Each pyruvic acid molecule contains three carbons, three oxygens, and four hydrogens
The number of carbon and oxygen atoms in one molecule of glucose-C6H12O6- can thus be accounted for in the ? two pyruvic acid molecules. Since the two pyruvic acids together account for only eight hydrogens, however, it is clear that four hydrogen atoms are removed from the intermediates in glycolysis
In glycolysis, each pair of hydrogen atoms is to reduce a molecule of? NAD
In this process, each pair of hydrogen atoms donates two electrons to NAD, thus reducing it.
Glycolysis is exergonic, and a portion of the energy that is released is used to drive the endergonic reaction ? ADP+ Pi =ATP.
At the end of the gycolytic pathway, there is a net gain of ? two ATP molecules per glucose molecule:
Glucose + 2NAD+2 ADP+ 2Pi= 2pyruvic acid +2 NADH+ 2ATP
NAD is: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important coenzyme found in cells. It plays key roles as a carrier of electrons in the transfer of reduction potential. NADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and NAD+ is the oxidized form of NADH.
Without oxygen, pyruvate is not metabolized by cellular respiration but undergoes a process of ? fermentation
in fermentation…pyruvate is not transported into the mitochondrion, but remains in the cytoplasm, where it is converted to waste products that may be removed from the cell.
Adding two hydrogen atoms (electrons) to pyruvic acid produces? lactic acid
In skeletal muscles, the waste product is ? lactic acid, produced in lactic acid fermentation
Anaerobic respiration metabolic pathway by which glucose is converted to lactic acid
Ischemia inadequate blood flow to an organ, such that the rate of oxygen delivery is insufficient to maintain aerobic respiration
Inadequate blood flow to the heart, or ? myocardial ischemia,may occur if coronary blood flow is occluded by atherosclerosis, blood clot or artery spasm.Severe pain in chest and left arm area.Pain associated with increased blood levels of lactic acid which produced by the ischemic heart muscle.
Glycogenesis formation of glycogen from glucose. Cells cannot accumulate very many separate glucose molecules, instead, many organs, particularly the liver, skeletal muscles, and heart, store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen.
Glycogenolysis: enzyme glycogen phosphorylase catalyzes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose1-phosphate. The Glucose 1-phosphate is then converted to glucose 6-phosphate.
The conversion of glycogen to glucose 6-phosphate
Glycogenolysis in liver glycogen stored in the liver and muscles, is converted first to glucose-1- phosphate and then into glucose-6-phosphate.
Only in the liver, can the glucose 6-phosphate also be used to ? produce free glucose for secretion into the blood.

In skeletal muscles
Skeletal muscles, which have large amounts of glycogen, can generate glucose 6-phosphate for their own glycolytic needs, but they cannot secrete glucose into the blood because they lack the ability to remove the phosphate group.
Two hormones which control glycogenolysis are ? peptide, glucagon from the pancreas and epinephrine from the adrenal glands.
Glucagon is released from the pancreas in response to? low blood glucose and epinephrine is released in response to a threat or stress.
glucagon from the pancreas and epinephrine from the adrenal glands act upon enzymes to stimulate ? glycogen phosphorylase to begin glycogenolysis and inhibit glycogen synthetase (to stop glycogenesis).
Gluconeogenesis in the liver some of the lactic acid produced by exercising skeletal muscles is delivered by the blood to the liver. Within the liver cells under these conditions, the enzyme lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) converts lactic acid to pyruvic acid
Glucose 6-phosphate in liver cells can be used as an? as an intermediate for glycogen synthesis, or it can be converted to free glucose that is secreted into the blood.
Cori cycle Two-way traffic between skeletal muscles and the liver
Through the Cori cycle, gluconeogenesis in the liver allows depleted skeletal muscle glycogen to be stored within 48 hours
Kreb's cycle Through a series of reactions involving the elimination of two carbons and four oxygens (as two CO2 molecules) and the removal of hydrogens, citric acid is eventually converted to oxaloacetic acid, which completes the cyclic metabolic pathway.
The Kreb's cycle removes carbon dioxide molecules from ? glucose in a stepwise fashion to release energy.

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