Sensory Physiology

Question Answer
What sensory receptor senses chemical stimuli? Chemoreceptors
What sensory receptor transduces light? Photoreceptors
What sensory receptor responds to temperature changes? Thermoreceptors
What sensory receptor responds to deformation of their cell membrane such as touch and pressure receptors in the skin and hair cells within the inner ear? Mechanoreceptors
What sensory receptors respond to intense stimuli by signaling pain? Nociceptors
What sensory receptors signal positional info of body parts such as muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs, and joint receptors? Proprioceptors
What type of sensory receptor respond at constant rate as long as a stimulus is applied such as pain? Tonic receptors
What type of sensory receptor respond with burst of activity but quickly reduces the firing rate to constant stimulation such as smell or touch? Phasic receptors (adaptation)
What type of sensations include touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain? Cutaneous
What sensations are mediated by free encapsulated nerve endings? Cutaneous
What do free nerve ending mediate? Heat, cold, and pain
Where are cold receptors located? Upper dermis
Where are warm receptors located? Deeper in the dermis
What are the NT for nociceptors? glutamate and substance P
Heat elicits pain through what receptors? capsaicin receptors
What are capsaicins? "hot" chemical in chili peppers
What are slow-adapting, expanded free nerve endings that mediate touch? Ruffini ending and Merkel's discs
What do encapsulated nerve ending mediate? Touch and pressure
Encapsulated nerve ending adapt quickly to touch and pressure and include what 2 corpuscles? Meissner's and Pacinian
What receptors respond to chemicals in an external environment? Exteroceptors
What receptors respond to chemicals in an interal environment? Interoceptors
What is the sense of taste and evoked by receptors that consist of barrel-shaped taste buds? Gustation
What tastes do not have receptors but act by passing thru channels? Salty and sour
What tastes have receptors and act thru G-proteins? Sweet and bitter
The smell or oflaction receptors are located in olfactory epithelium in what part of the nose? top of the nose
What are the 3 kinds of cells that the olfactory apparatus consists of? Receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells
The receptor cells involved in smell are bipolar neurons that send axons where? Olfactory bulb
Supporting cells in the nose contain what? Detoxifying enzymes
Basal cells of the nose are what type of cells that produce new receptor cells every 1-2 months. Stem cells
Odor molecules bind to receptors and act through what proteins? G-proteins
What provides a sense of equilibrium? Vestibular apparatus
What 2 things form the inner ear? Vestibular apparatus and the cochlea
What 2 things does the vestibular apparatus consist of? Otolith organs and the semicircular canals
What are the 2 otolith organs? Utricle and saccule
The membranous labyrinth of the vestibular apparatus filled with __________and located within _______ __________. Endolymph/bony labyrinth
What does the Utricle and the Saccule of the vestibular apparatus provide info about? Linear acceleration
The semicircular canals are oriented in 3 planes to give a sense of what? Angular acceleration
Sensory hair cells of the vestibular apparatus each contains 20-5- hairlike extensions called what? Stereocilia
Of the 20-50 hairlike extensions, one is a true cilium called what? Kinocilium
When sterocilia are bent toward kinocilium, hair cell depolarizes and releases NT that stumulates what cranial nerve? 8th
When sterocilia are bent away from kinocilium, hair cells do what? Hyperpolarizes
The utricle and saccule of the vestibular apparatus each have a patch of specialezed epithelium containing hair cells called what? Macula
The macula containing hair cells are embedded in a gelatinous membrane and contains what that resist change in movement? Calcium carbonate crystals (otoliths)
What part of the ear provides info about rotational acceleration and project in 3 different planes? Semicircular canals
Where are the sensory hair cells located in the semicircular canals? Crista ampullaris
Where are the hair cell processes of the semicircular canal embedded in? Cupula
The involuntary oscillations of the eyes that occur when a spinning person stops but the eyes continue to move in the direction opposite to the spin and then jerk repidly back to midline is called what? Vestibular nystagmus
The natural response of the vestibular apparatus when there is a loss of equilibrium. Vertigo
What condition pathologicall may be caused by anything that alters the firing rate of the 8th nerve and is often caused by a viral infection? Vertigo
Sound waves travel in all directions from the source and the waves are characterized by what 2 things? Frequency and intensity
What characteristic of sound waves is measured in hertz (cycles/sec)? Frequency
What characteristic of sound waves is directly related to amplitude of waves and is measured in decibels? Intensity
In the outer ear what are the sound waves funneled by? Pinna (auricle)
What part of the outer ear channels sound waves to the tympanic membrane? External auditory meatus
What muscle of the middle ear is attached to the stapes and provides protection from loud noises? Stapedius muscle
What muscle of the middle ear can contract and dampen large vibrations and prevents nerve damage in the cochlea? Stapedius muscle
What are the ossicles of the middle ear? Malleus, stapes, and incus
What ossicle of the middle ear is attached to the tympanic membrane? Malleus
What is the oval window attached to? Scala vestibuli (at the base of the cochlea)
Vibrations at the oval window induces pressure waves in what fluid of the scala vestibli? Perilymph
In the cochlea, _______ frequencies produce maximum stimulation of the spiral organ closer to the _______ of the cochlea and _________ frequencies stimulate closer to the ____. High/base/lower/apex
In the cochlea, as frequencies ________ they travel ____ before passing directly thru vestibular and basilar membranes to the tympani. Increase/less
_______ frequencies can travel all the way thru the vestibuli and back in the tympani. Low
What part of the ear is where sound is transduced? Spiral Organ (organ of corti)
What 2 part of the cochlea are continuous at the apex? Scalas vestibuli and tympani
Waves in the vestibuli pass to the tympani and displace the _______ _________ which is necessary because fluids are incompressible and waves would not be possible without it? Round window
Multiple rows of outer hair cells in the sprial organ of corti are embedded in what membrane? Tectorial
Pressure waves moving thru the cochlear duct create shearing forces between what 2 membranes, moving and bending stereocilia causing ion channels to open, depolarizing hair cells? Basilar and tectorial
What 2 parts of the eye focus the right part of visual field on the left half of the retina and the left half of the visual field focuses on the right half of each retina? Cornea and lens
The axons of the retinal neurons gather where and exit the eye where? Optic disc (blind spot)/Optic nerve
The retina absorbs some light. What is the rest of the light absorbed by? Choroid layer
What part of the eye is where the photoreceptors are found? Retina
Dilating of the eye is via contraction of what muscle? Radial
Pupil constricts by contraction of the circular muscles and is under the control of what NS? Parasympathetic
What controls the size of the pupil? Iris (a pigmented muscle)
What part of the eye is transparent and is continuous with the sclera? Cornea
What is the outermost layer of the eye? Sclera (white of eyes)
Wavelengths of 400-700 nm constitutes what? Visual light
Eyes transduce energy in small part of ______________ spectrum into action potentials. Electromagnetic

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