seedless plants, angiosperms, gymnosperms

Question Answer
carolla whorl of petals in a flower
calyx lowermost whorl of modified leaves, sepals
sporophyte a multicellular, spore-producing life phase of an organism
pedicel individual flower stalk
gametophyte the gamete-producing body of a plant or an alga;usually haploid
fruit structure that develops from the ovary and sometimes adjacent flower parts after pollination and fertilization is achieved
pome fleshy fruit where flesh derives from a large receptacle (apples, pears)
legume plants that are members of the pea or bean family
achene type of simple indehiscent fruit containing a single seed attatched to the fruit wall at a single point
samara simple indehiscent dry fruit containing a single seed and wings
nut a type of simple indehiscent dry fruit
fruit was is stony and derived from multiple carpels
megasporophyll leaf like structure that bears the megasporangium
cotyledon the embryonic seed leaves in the flowering plants that contain the nutritive tissue derived from the endosperm
endosperm triploid nutritive tissue formed as one result of double fertilization in angiosperms
microspore tiny spores whose walls enclose male gametophytes
sporophyll a spore bearing leaf
achegonia vase shaped gamete in seedless vascular plants in which an egg is produced within a sterile jacket layer of cells
sporangium structure which spores are produced
nucellus female sporangium within an ovule
megasporangium in seed plants
progymnosperms a group of extinct plants known only from fossils that possessed wood similar to that of modern gymnosperms, but lacked seeds
gymnosperm group of embryophytes that have seeds not enclosed in fruits
pteridophyte non-seed vascular plants; when leaves are present they have branching vascular systems (ferns)
bryophyte mosses, liverworts and hornworts
non-vascular embryophytes
gemmae a small piece of the gametophyte body that can develop into a new plant
a form of asexual reproduction
sepal the outermost whorl of floral parts which are leaf-like and usually green
spore a reproductive cell that is capable of growing into a new organism without fusing with another cell
stigma the area of the pistil that receives pollen grains
style in the flowers pistil; the style is the column of tissue between the stigma and the ovary through which the pollen tubes grow
ovary broad,round lower portion of the carpel in flowering plants, where the ovules are located
carpel a folded and fused leaf-life structure that contains ovules
mitosis a form of nuclear division in which a set of chromosome copies resulting from DNA replication are distributed to progeny cells
peristome the upper part of the moss capsule that is specialized to discharge spores
meiosis the two successive nuclear divisions that reduce the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid, producing haploid spores
capsule a simple dry dehiscent fruit consisting of two or more carpels that may split open in a variety of ways
carpellate flowers that lack stamens
staminate flowers that lack carpels
generative cell a cell found in pollen tubes
gymnosperms= gives rise to body cell and stalk cell
angiosperms= gives rise directly to two male gametes and generative nuclei
peduncle stalk that bears a flower of a cluster of flowers
synergid two haploid nuclei at the micropylar end of the embryo that dont participate in fertilization
antipodals haploid cells usually three in number found in the embryo sac at opposite ends of the micropyle
pteridosperms extinct order of gymnosperms known from fossils, had fern-like fronds and showed thickening of stems and seed formations
calyptra hood over sporophyte in mosses and liverworts; developed from wall of archegonium
operculum membranous cap covering the peristome in undehisced capsule of sporophytes
perfect flower term for a flower that has both stamens and carpels
imperfect flower term for a flower that has either carpels or stamens
berry fleshy fruit with one to several carpels in which the flesh is soft throughout the fruit
drupe fleshy fruit in which inner layer of the fruit forms a hard stony pit tightly bound to the seed
multiple fruit fruits formed when the fruitlets made by an individual flower in an inflorescence fuse into a single large fruit (pineapple)
aggregate fruit fruits formed from a single flower with multiple pistils in which each pistil develops into a fruitlet (raspberries)
irregular flower show bilateral symmetry
double fertilization unique characteristic of flowering plants in which two sperm nuclei fuse with separate nuclei to produce a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm
regular flower show radial symmetry
microsporangia sporangium that give rise to microspores
megasporangia sporangium that produce megaspores
indusium flap of tissue covering the sorus
megaspore large haploid spore that gives rise to the female gametophyte
microsporocyte diploid cells in the pollen sacs that divide by meiosis to produce four haploid microspores
megasporocyte cell that undergoes meiosis to produce megaspores in heterosporous plants
megaphyll a leaf having a branched system of veins (euphyll)
microphyll small leaves with only one vein found in lycophytes (lycophylls)
lycophyll leaves having a single unbranched vein that does not leave a gap in the stems vascular system
euphyll leaves having a branched vascular system that leaves a gap in the stems vascular system
polar nuclei the two nuclei that lie in the center of the female gametophyte or embryo sac. After fertilization with a sperm nucleus the 3 nuclei give rise to the triploid endosperm tissue
microsporophyll the leaf-like structure that bears one or more microsporangia
monotcots flower parts in multiples of three
leaf venation parallel
vascular bundles scattered
one pore or furrow
one cotyledon
dicots flower parts in multiples of four or five
leaf venation netlike
vascular bundles in a ring
three pores or furrows
two cotyledons
sporopollenin retains water and microbial resistance
lignin stregthens and waterproofs cell walls
cutin on plant surfaces; microbial resistance, UV radiation

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