Science Vocabulary- BOOK 1 Chapter 1, all sections!

Question Answer
What is a Cell? Form the parts of an organism and carry out all of an organism's processes, of functions; The basic units of structure and function in living things
What is a Microscope? An instrument that makes small objects look larger
What is the cell theory definition? A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
What is the Cell Theory? All living things are composed of cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, & all cells are produced from other cells
What is an organelle? Even smaller structures inside a cell; These carry out specific functions within the cell
What is the Cell Wall? A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cell of plants and some other organisms; Helps to protect and support the cell
What is the Cell Membrane? A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell
What is the Nucleus? The "brain" of the cell; The cell's control center, directing all of the cell's activities.
What is Chromatin? Contain genetic material; the instructions for directing the cell's functions
What is the Nucleolus? Where Ribosomes are made
What is Cytoplasm? The region between the cell membrane and the nucleus; constantly moving
What is Mitochondria? The "Powerhouses" of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum? Mazes of passageways that carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
What are Ribosomes Attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum; Small, Grain-like bodies; Function as factories to produce proteins
What is the Golgi Body? "Mail Room"; Receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the Endoplasmic Reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell
What are Chloroplasts? Capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell; Green; Only in Plant Cells and other organisms
What are Vacuoles? The storage area of cells
What is a Lysosome? Small, round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell
What is an element? Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
What is a Compound? When 2 or more elements combine they form this
What is an organic compound? a compound that contains carbon
What is an inorganic compound? a compound that doesn't contain the element carbon
What is a Carbohydrate? A energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What is a Lipid? A Energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What are Proteins? Large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in some cases sulfur
What are Amino Acids? Protein molecules that are made up of smaller molecules
What is an Enzyme? A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
What are Nucleic Acids? Very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
What is DNA? (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) The genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
What is RNA? (Ribonucleic Acids) Plays an important role in the production of proteins
What is Selectively Permeable? Some substances can pass through the cell membrane while others cannot
What is Diffusion? The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is Osmosis? The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable Cell Membrane
What is Passive Transport? The movement of dissolved materials through a Cell Membrane without using Cellular Energy
What is Active Transport? The movement of materials through a cell membrane using Cellular Energy

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