Science Vocab For 1st Semester Exam: Dessert Diner Menu Option

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Tool with three beams used to measure mass. Triple Beam Balance
Long, slender tube used to measure volume. Graduated Cylinder
Tool used to hold and sometimes find the volume of liquids. Beaker
Concentration of matter or mass in a specific volume. Density
Using observations, inferences, and past knowledge to create an opinion about events in the past or future. Prediction
Amount of matter in an object. Mass
Tool used to protect eyes. Goggles
Amount of space matter takes up. Volume
Using the five senses to obtain information. Observation
Tool used to hold small amounts of liquids and mix chemicals in. Test tube
Using observations or past knowledge to create a reasoned opinion on a topic or scene. Inference
Positively charged part of the atom; remains in the nucleus. Proton
Identity is shaped by the number of protons. A substance made up of only one type of atom. Element
Charge-less parts of the atom; remains in the nucleus. Neutron
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. Caused by losing or gaining neutrons. Isotope
Negatively charged parts of the atom; whiz around the nucleus. Electron
Electrons in the outer shells. Valence Electrons
Electrically charged particle/atom. Caused by losing or gaining electrons. Ion
Positively charged atom. Cation
Negatively charged atom. Anion
Number which we use to organize elements on the periodic table. Also signifies the number of protons and electrons in an element. Atomic Number
Number which states how heavy the atoms are. Is an average; not all types of the same element weigh the same. Atomic Mass
Element that is malleable, ductile, a good conductor, and shiny. Metal
Element that is not malleable, ductile, a good conductor, or shiny. Nonmetal
Element that has the properties of both metals and nonmetals. Metalloid
Columns on the periodic table. Groups
Rows on the periodic table. Periods
Metals in groups 3-12. Transition Elements
Elements in groups 1-2 and 13-18. Representative Elements
Bond formed when electrons move from one atom to another. Occurs between metals and nonmetals. Ionic Bonds
Bond formed when two or more atoms share electrons. Occurs between nonmetals. Covalent Bonds
Bond formed when a large amount of metal atoms share valence electrons. Occurs between metals. Metallic Bonds
Law that states matter cannot be created or destroyed. Law of Conservation of Matter
Molecule that consists of only one type of element. Element Molecule
Molecule that consists of more than one type of element. Compound Molecule
Substances that go through a change in reaction. Reactants
Substances that result from change in reaction. Products
Way of describing chemical reaction. Chemical Equation
Shorthand way of writing atoms, molecules, and equations. Chemical Formula
(ex: H, H2, H2O2 -> H2O + O2)
Number that represents how many molecules there are. Coefficient
(ex: ->3H2O2)
Number that represents the number of atoms in a molecule. Subscript
(ex: 2H3<-)
When elements are combined to produce a compound. Synthesis
(ex: H20 + O2 -> H2O2)
When a compound breaks down into simpler parts. Decomposition
(ex: H2O2 -> H2O + O2)
Reaction where an uncombined element replaces another. Single Replacement
(ex: H + NaCl -> Na + HCl)
Reaction where parts of two compounds switch to form two new compounds. Double Replacement
(ex: H2O + NaCl -> H2Cl + NaO)
Properties that can be observed without changing the substance. Physical Properties
Properties that describe the potential of substances to undergo chemical changes. Chemical Properties
Change where the chemical structure of a substance is not altered. Physical Change
Change where the chemical structure of a substance is altered. Chemical Change
Push or pull. Force
Force that opposes the movement of an object. Friction
Strong push that quickly moves an object. Thrust
When all forces acting on an object are equal. Balanced Forces
A change in the velocity of an object. Acceleration
Way an object is moving. Direction
An object in motion will remain in motion with the same speed and direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Newton's First Law of Motion
The more mass an object has, the more force is needed to accelerate the object. Newton's Second Law of Motion
With every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton's Third Law of Motion
How fast an object is moving. Speed
When forces acting on an object are not equal. Unbalanced Forces
Speed and direction of an object. Velocity
D/T Find Speed
SxT Find Distance
D/S Find Time
Everything that exists. Universe
Large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity. Galaxy
The Sun and all the celestial bodies that revolve around it. Solar System
Unit of measurement used for distances in the solar system. Astronomical Unit or AU
Distance light travels in space for one year. Light-year
Graph of the size of stars plotted against their temperature. HR Diagram
Stars in the smooth curve called the main sequence in the HR Diagram. Main Sequence Stars
Faint star of small radius and high density. Hot, but dim. White Dwarf Star
Star which has completed burning hydrogen and expanded. Cool, but bright. Red Giant Star
Galaxy with an overall elliptic shape. Elliptical Galaxy
Galaxy with no definite shape. Irregular Galaxy
Galaxy with a spiral structure. Spiral Galaxy
Celestial bodies that revolve around the sun in the Belt between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroid
Small extraterrestrial body that is frozen and travels around the sun with a tail. Comet
Bright streak in the sky that appears when a meteoroid is falling to earth. Meteor
Mass of matter that has fallen to earth from space. Meteorite
Small body moving in space; smaller than an asteroid. Meteoroid
Theory of the origin of the universe. States that a small, extremely dense and hot concentration of matter exploded. Big Bang Theory
Mass of stellar gas and dust. Nebula
The entire range of radiation extending in frequency from gamma to radio waves. EM or Electromagnetic Spectrum
Graph with speed on y-axis and time on x-axis. Acceleration Graph
Graph with distance on y-axis and time on x-axis. Speed Graph

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