Science Test

Question Answer
amber hardened tree sap, often a source of insect fossils
cast formed or shaped within a mold
earthquake a movement or vibration in Earth
erratics isolated boulders left behind by a glacier
fault a break in Earth's outer layewr caused by the movement of rocks
glacier a large mass of snow and ice that moves over land
horizon a layer of soil that is different from the layers above and below it
humus left over decomposed plant and animal matter
igneous rock fire made rock formed from hot, molten rock material
imprint a fossil created by a print or impression
metamorphic rock rock that has been changed by heat, by pressure, or by both
mineral a naturally occurring substance that is neither plant nor animal
mold a hollow fossil form clearly showing the outside features of the organism
moraine rock debris carried and deposited by a glacier
outwash plains gravel, sand, and clay carried from glaciers by melting water and streams
permeability the rate at which water can pass through porous material
relative age the age of something compared with the age of another thing
rock cycle a process by which rocks are changed from one type into another
sedimentary rock rock formed when bits or layers of rocks are cemented together
soil profile a vertical section of soil from the surface down to bedrock
terminus the end or outer margin of a glacier
What are three causes of erosions? SA wind, waves, glaciers
Know this equation – SA soil=tiny rocks + minerals + humus + water + air
What are the three main groups of rocks? SA igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
MC Rocks are made of minerals, come in different shapes, colors, and sizes
MC Most fossils are found in sedimentary rock and the layers help us to determine time order
MC Conglomerate is pebbles and large grains of sand cemented together
MC Three properties used to identify minerals are hardness, streak, and luster
MC The building blocks of rocks are minerals
MC Luster is the way light bounces off minerals
MC Relative age is described using words like older, oldest, younger and youngest
MC Molten material below the Earth's surface is called magma
MC The part of an animal's body most likely to become a fossil is the bone, teeth, or a shell
MC Petrified means "turned to stone". It happens when the once living parts of wood or bones are filled in by minerals.
MC A place in which animals got stuck and their bones were preseved as the material around them hardened is a tar pit
MC The solid rock that maked up the Earth's outermost layer is the crust
MC The layer below the crust is the mantle
MC A liquid layer of Earth lying below the mantle is the outer core
MC A sphere of solid material at Earths center is the inner core
MC The solid rock layer which is broken apart into small rock pieces and minerals to form soil is called bedrock
MC The top layer of soil that is rich in humus and minerals is called topsoil
MC The space between soil particles is called pore space
MC It takes about 100-1000 years for an inch of topsoil to form.
MC Energy released as vibrations caused by rocks along fault lines moving and breaking are called seismic waves
MC Seismic waves travel in all directions
MC Scientists study earthquakes so they can learn about the inside of Earth and to predict when they will happen.
MC Glaciers form when more snow falls in winter than melts in the summer
MC Glaciers move when the glacier beigns to melt and the water runs downhill.
MC Glacier till is an unsorted mixture of rock materials deposited as a glacier melts
MC Glaciers have changed the Earth by flattening and rounding the land and creating valleys

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