Science terms and study questions

Question Answer
Consider a huge rotating cloud of particles in space that gravitate together to form an increasingly dense ball. As the cloud shrinks in size, it rotates Faster
To say that electric charge is conserved means that no case has ever been found where Net charge has been created or destroyed
Electrons are made to flow in a wire when there is a A potential difference across it ends
Moving electric charges will interact with A magnetic and electric field
An object is raised above the ground gaining a certain amount of potential energy. If the same object is raised twice as high, it gains Twice as much potential energy
Which has greater kinetic energy, a car traveling at 30km/h or a car of half that mass traveling at 60 km/h The 60-km/h car
Thermal energy is a measure of vibrational and Translational and Rotational Kinetic energy
The direction of a gravitational field is In the same direction of gravitational attraction
When the distance between tow stars decreases by half, the force between them increased to four times a much
The electrical forces between charges depends on the Magnitude of electric charge and the separation distance between electric charges
A proton and an electron are placed in an electric field. Which undergoes the greater acceleration The electron
An Ampere is a unit of electrical Current
Charge carriers in a metal are electrons rather than protons because electrons are loosely bound
The source of all magnetism is moving electric charge
The force on an electron moving in a magnetic field will be the largest when its direction is perpendicular to the magnetic field direction
The solar system consist of objects gravitationally bound to the sun
The headlights, radio, and defroster fan in an automobile are connected in a parallel
Magnetic domains normally occur in Iron
As more lamps are put into a series circuit, the overall current in the power source decreases
When the distance between tow charges is halved, the electrical force between the charges quadruples
Which force bonds atoms together to form molecules electrical
A flower pot of mass m falls from rest to the ground below, a distance k. Which statement is correct The KE of the pot when it hits the ground is proportional to h.
An object that has kinetic energy must be Moving
Current flows through a circuit
Thrust a magnet into a coil of wire and the coil Becomes an electromagnet and has a current in ti
If you do work on an object in half the time, your power output is twice the usual power output
If you push an object twice as far while applying the same force, you do Twice as much work
According to Newton, the greater the masses of interacting objects, the greater the gravitational force between them
Voltage can be induced in a wire by Moving a magnet near the wire, changing the current in a nearby wire and moving the wire near a magnet
An Earth satellite is simply a projectile freely falling around the Earth
If you exert 1 N for a distance of 1m in 1s, you will deliver a power of 1W
A main difference between gravitational and electrical forces is that electrical forces repel or attract
The main difference between a radio wave and a light wave is its wavelength and frequency
Which electromagnetic waves has the shortest wavelength Xray
Relative to ultraviolet waves, the wavelength of infrared waves is longer
Light behaves primarily as a particle when it interacts with matter
The fastest seismic wave is a Primary wave
The Richter scale measures an earthquakes Magnitude
Tsunami are caused usually by Earthquakes in subduction zones
In a swell, wavelength is constant.As a swell nears the shore and touches bottom, the wavelength shortens, wave speed slows, and wave height increases
The source of all wave motion is a vibrating object
The vibrations of a longitudinal wave move in a direction along the direction of wave travel
A transverse wave is not a sound wave
Compressions and rarefractions are characteristic of longitudinal waves
In designing a music hall, an acoustical engineer deals mainly with Resonance
Refraction of sound can occur in water and air
Electromagnetic waves consist of vibrating electric and magnetic fields
Sound travels faster in air
The Richter scale measures the amount that the ground shakes during an earthquake
The Mercalli scale measures the damage done by an earthquake
A sound wave is a longitudinal wave
For light, a red shift indicates the light source moves away from you
Relative to radio waves, the velocity of visible light waves in a vacuum is more
Sound waves cannot travel in a vacuum
Most of the electromagnetic spectrum consist visable light False
A sound source of high frequency emits a high speed, pitch, amplitude
The source of all electromagnetic waves is vibrating charges
Wave interference occurs for water, light and sound waves
The movement of water in a wave travels in a circular path at a depth of one-half the wavelength
The photoelectric effect best demonstrates the particle nature of light
Earth Quake P-Waves Are longitudinal vibrations similar to sound waves
Science and technology are related to one another, but not the same thing
Using science to analyze nature adds depth to our understanding and therefore adds to our appreciation of nature
A kilogram is a measure of an object's mass
In science, an educated guess is a hypothesis
The statement, " There are regions beneath Earth's crust that will always be beyond the reach of scientific investigation", is a speculation
A scientific hypothesis may turn out to be right or it may turn out to be wrong. If it is a valid hypothesis, there must be a test for proving it wrong
Whereas Aristotle relied on logic in explaining nature, Galileo relied on Experiment
A 1-kg mass at Earth's surface weights about 10N
What is the acceleration of a car that maintains a constant velocity of 100 km/h for 10s 1000 km/h/s
If experimental findings are not reproducible the results are not considered valid
Most natural phenomena we wonder about involve several scientific disciplines
Science, art and religion do not contradict one another because all three have different domains
In a scientific experiment, a control is a test that duplicates an experimental test except for one variable and a way to study the effects of just one experimental variable
The scientific method is a method for designing experiments
The synthesis of a large collection of information that contains well-tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the world is know as a scientific theory
If a freely falling object were somehow equipped with a speedometer, its speed reading would increase each second by about 10m/s
compared to the mass of uranium nucleus before splitting, the pieces it splits into have less mass
Energy released by the sun results from the process wherein atomic nuclei combine
Compared to the sum of the masses of all the individual nucleons in their separate states that make up a nucleus, the mass of the composite nucleus is more
The predominant gas in the atmosphere of Mars is carbon dioxide
Asteroids that are most likely to fall to Earth with devastating impact are asteroids of the Inner solar system
The Oort cloud is like the Kuniper Belt in that it has the same geometric shape
The difference between apparent brightness and luminosity is that luminosity is a good indicator of the energy output of a star
Red giants are stars that are large but have low surface temperatures
To date the age of old rocks, which parent isotopes are most useful uranium-235 and uranium-238
The atomic mass number of an element is the same as the number of its Protons
Different isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons
Which isotope is radioactive carbon-12
Why are the inner planets rocky they are formed from materials with high melting points
A nucleon has more potential energy with respect to a nucleus when it is outside the nucleus
Thermonuclear fusion occurs mainly in the cores of stars
Between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, radioactive by-products are more characteristic of nuclear fission
The temperature of a star is evidenced by its color
A black hole is the remains of a giant collapsed star
A pulsar is likely a throbbing star in its death throes
The planet with a size most like Earth's is Venus
In both fission and fusion, mass is changed to the form of kinetic energy
Evidence for the Big band theory is the long wavelength radiation that permeates the universe and slowing down of galaxies as they recede
White dwarfs are stars that are large but have high surface temperature
After our sun burns its supply of hydrogen, it will become a red giant
The Hertsprung-Russell Diagram, an important tool of astronomers, relates stellar temperature to staller color
Carbon dating requires that the object being tested contains organic material
Compared to the density of water, the density of Saturn is more
The fact that one side of the moon always faces Earth is evidence that while revolving about the Earth, it rotates about its axis
The Nebular theory is based upon the observation that the solar system is highly ordered, indicating it formed in a step wise manner from physical processes
Stars on the main sequence of the Hertzprung-Russell diagram generate energy by fusing hydrogen to helium
A blue star is _______ than a red star hotter
Electric forces within an atomic nucleus tend to hold it together
The planet that is most tipped to its orbital plane is Uranus
The end result of radioactive decay can be a different element, atom or isotope
The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of its protons
Generally speaking, the larger a nucleus is, the greater it instability
An atom with an imbalance of electrons to protons is an ion
Uranium-235, 238, 239 are different isotopes
Radiometric dating is based on proportions of radioactive isotopes and their decay products
Earth Support life, rotates 24hrs, Water (Liquid + Ice), Nitrogen, Oxygen, Mild green house effect, Active tectonic plates, 1 moon- cause tides + maintain earth tilt, earthquakes + volcanos,
Mars core, mantel + crust thin cloudness atmosphere high carbon dioxide cold surface – due to green house high winds – low density rotates 24hr 37min closest to the earth polar ice cap 2 moons – phobas + penas
Terrestrial Inner planets – closest to the sun Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Rocky, solid dense, close together,solid material containing crust + atmosphere
Jovian outer planets – jupiter, saturn, neptune, uranus – gas planets hydrogen + helium, ring systems faint and visable
Main Asteroid Belt rock remenants, orbit between Mars _ Jupiter Millions of Asteroids, irregular shape craters, gravitational pull from jupiter + mars knock astroids out of orbit
Uranus ice giant, hydrogen + hellium, methane, water – density is greater than water axis is titled 98 degrees rotates instead of spin clockwise 21 moons faint rings
Venus resembles earth, in size density and distance from the sun. dense carbon dioxide greenhouse effect 243 earth days 225 days to orbit clockwise, evidence of volcanic activity
Pluto dwarf planet
Neptune ice giant, hydrogen + hellium, methane, ammonia, emit 2.5 more heat than receives, strong wind, 13 moons, 6 ring systems, titan largest moon, plor geyers + liquid nitrogen
Jupiter liquid nitrogen, highest mass + volume, solid core-iron + nickle, low density, hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia rotates quickly 10hrs, many moons faint rings IO, Eripa, Ganye, Cosllsc= four largest moons
Saturn hydrogen + helium, lowest density, most visable rings – ice rock rotates in 10.2hrs, polar flattening, strong magnetic field, 24 moons- Titan Largest emit twice as much heat
Layers of the earth crust, mantel, core
crust continental and oceanic
continental crust less dense granite rock 10-70cm
oceanic crust thick dense balsamic rock
Mantle most of earth mass + volume, rich is silicon and oxygen, denser than crust
Core iron + nickle densest,transformation of gravity potential energy + heat, space debris collisions, extremely hot 7200 degrees
Mantle lithosphere = rigid – upper
Asthenosphere = plastic lower upper
pressure + radioactive decay, warmer than crust
The air in your house is a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture. homogeneous because it is mixed very well.
Earth's layer with the most plastic like behavior is Mantle
Continental Drift Hypothesis Alfred Wegener – continents in motion, drifting apart into different configurations, continents were joined together – pangaena (universal land)
Alfred Wegener used evidence to support his hypothesis: jigsaw fit, fossil, matching rock types, structual similarities, paleaclimatic,
Alfred Wegener could not explain how continents move – theory was dismissed
Plate Tectonics unifying theory that explains changing of the earths surface
Plates1 section of the earth, strong, rigid outer layer – Lithosphere divided into eight major pieces
Plates2 consist of uppermost mantle and overlying crust – overlies the plastic asthenosphere
Plates3 move continents because they are embedded in the plates
Plates4 lethospheric plates ride atop the plastic asthenosphere
Plates5 interaction between plates occur along plate boundaries
Plates6 creation and destruction of lethosphere occurs along plate boundaries
Plates7 volcanoes and mountains occur along plate boundaries and sometime along former boundaries
Three types of plate boundaries divergent, convergent, transform
Divergent plates moves away from one another
Convergent plates move toward each other = lithosphere destroyed
Transform plates slide pass one another = lithosphere is neither created or destroyed
What forces drive the plates Earths interior – contains lots of heat energy, energy moves from warmer region to cooler regions
What forces drive the plates2 heat transfer by convection plate motion
What forces drive the plates3 driving force is convection currents within athenosphere
Ridge plates may slide down and outward from elevated oceanic ridges
Slab gravity pulls the older, more dense plate into the earth at an oceanic trench
Divergent Plates Features As plates move apart magma rises to surface forming lava = new lithosphere
Divergent Plates Features2 In the ocean seafloor spreading mid ocean ridges (mid atlantic ridge)
Divergent Plates Features3 on land continents tear apart – rift valleys (East Africa rift zone)
Convergent boundary features oceanic convergence = when tow plates converge older and dense plates descend beneath the other
Convergent boundary features2 oceanic continental convergence = denser oceanic slab sinks into asthenosphere
Continetal convergence continual subduction can bring two continents together
Continental convergence2 less dense bouyant continental lithosphere does not subduct – this process produces mountains
Transform fault boundary features plates slide pass each other, no converging or diverging
Transform fault boundary feature2 most transform faults join tow segments of a mid-ocean ridge
Transform fault boundary feature3 a few cut through continental crust
Convection cells local winds, surfaces are not heated equally, (land heats and cools more rapidly than water)
Convection cells2 unequal heating pressure differences – wind, local winds and convection currents = air mixed on a small cell
Convection cells prevailing winds long range horizontal mixing = prevailing winds
Convection cells prevailing winds2 convection cells describe air movement, hot air rises – less dense, cool air sinks – more dense
Convection cells prevailing winds3 connected by this horizontal motion called wind
Weathering disintegration or decomposition of rock by water, wind, ice and chemicals
Two types of weathering Mechanical and Chemical
Mechanical weathering physical breakdown of rocks, pushes sections of rock apart = water, bilogical agents trees, wind
Chemical Weathering compounds in rock decompose into more stable substances – main producer of sediments
Erosion weathered particles are removed from rocks and transported by streams, glaciers, wind or mobile agents – rock normally angular and jagged, particles size decrease
Erosion Agents gravity, surface water, ground water, wind, glaciers
Erosion Agents Gravity down slope movement of earth's materials i.e. landslide, sail creep
Erosion Agents Surface water fast moving transport rock, slow moving deposit rock
Erosion Agents Ground water dissolves and transports soluble rocks underground surface depression
Erosion Agents Winds intermittently transport sediment sand blasting effect
Erosion Agents Glaciers as it moves loosens and lifts up blocks of rock and carries to distant locations
Six Weather Elements atmosphere pressure, temperature, wind, precipitation, cloudiness, humidity
Structure of Earth's Atmosphere Exoxphere, Inosphere, Thermospher, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troshere
Trosphere lowest, thinist layer 90% of the atmospheres mass, weather occurs, temperture decreases with altitude 6degrees per kilometer top average -50degrees
Stratosphere top of troposhere, 50km above surface, ozone layer, harmful uv radiation -50 at base to 0 degrees at top
Mesosphere extends fro statospher to alt of 80 km, temp. decrease with altitude, gases, absorbs little uv, 0deg at base to -90 at top
Thermosphere No well defined upper limit temp. increases with altitude, very low density of gas, little heat absorption
Inonosphere not a true layer, electrified region, Aurors fiery display of light near earths magnetic poles
Exosphere the interface between earth and space beyond 500km, atoms and molecules can escape to space
Eat In The Morning Sounds True Exosphere, Inonosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere
Composition of the Atmosphere Mostly abundant gases Nitrogen 70% and Oxygen 21%
Ciculation of the Atmosphere High to Low
Warm air – less dense – rise
Cool air – More dense – sinks
Coriolis Effect Earths rotatation greatly affects the path of moving air. Moving such air deflect
Coriolis Effect2 Northern Hemisphere – Right
Southern Hemisphere – Left
Coriolis Effect3 apparent deflection of the wind – faster the wind, greater deflection, Latitudes influences the degree of deflection. Greatest at the the poles, zero at the equator
Humidity the mass of water vapor a given volume of air contains
Humdidity2 Relative humidity is ratio:
Water Vapor sat_flash_1/Water Vapor Capacity X 100
Air Mass volume of air that has a characteristic temperature and humidity through out
Changing Weather: Air Mass tends to remain intact as it travels, acquires temperature and moisture characteristics of its source region
Changing Weather: Fronts Less dense, warmer air mass flows upward over more dense cooler air. Frontal lifting – associated with rapid changes in weather
Cyclones winds that rotate of low pressue, due to coriolis winds, move counter clock wise in the northern hemisphere
Cyclones2 moves clockwise in the southern hemisphere, air converges in the center (lowest pressure) force to rise upward
Anticyclones an area of high pressure wind flows,due to coriolis, winds move clockwise int he northern hemisphere
Anticyclones2 wind moves clockwise in the southern hemisphere, air diverges and is forced downward and outward
Storms violent and rapid changes in the weather
Three types of severe storms Thunderstorms, Hurricanes, Tornadoes
Thunderstorms humid air rises, cools, and condenses into a single cumulus cloud
Thundercloud thunderstorm fed by unstable moist air
Thunderstorms2 contains large amounts of energy
Tornadoes Rotating column of aire that moves around a low pressure core. Reaches from a thunder cloud to the ground
Funnel similar to a tornado but does not reach the ground
Hurricanes rising warm air, creates low pressure winds, energy latent heat released from condensing water vapor
Green House effect warming of the atmosphere as terrestrial radiation is trapped by green house gases
Green House effect2 Humans impact an increase by burning fossil fuels, deforestation
Seismometer used to measure magnitude of an earthquake on the richter scale
GPS location,study direction of tectonic plate movement, change to the earth due to land subsidence 3 major components: Satellites (24), Ground stations (5), and GPS units – receives
Infrared Imaging thermal imaging, used to study the earth and yeilds,planet, cameras detect heat radiation night vision global maps ocean surface temp, weather patterns elnino
Satellite Remote Sensing geographic location from a distance, area, meap large remote areas, study rocks, vegetation, city planning geographic info systems
Doppler Radar meterioligist use doppler rader to detech and predict precipitation, storm movements. local news, loses its ablility to detect precipatation with increased distance
Ecology how organisms interact w/their environment or ecosystem
Abiotic non living
Biotic Living
Levels Individual, population, community, ecosystem
Population group of individuals of a single species occupying a given area
Community interactions among different species
Ecosystem all organisms & their abiotic & biotic
Species Interactions competition, symbiosis
Competition species compete with their niches job/role over lap in the ecosystem,
Symbiosis species may live in close association with one another. A symbiotic relationship may involve parasitism, commenalism, mutualism
Niche abiotic and biotic resources competition occurs when species compete for limited resources
Parasitism +, — (the worm in a human)
Commensalism +,O ( ramora hitching a ride on a shark)
Mutualism +,+ (bird and cattle eating insects)
Kinds of Ecosystems Terrestrial (8) and Aquatic
Terrestrial Tropical forest, temperature, coniferous, tundra, savannas, temperate grassland, chaparral, deserts
Aquatic Fresh water, saltwater, estuaries – fresh and salt water meet river or the ocean
Primary succession colonization of bare land devoid of soil, new land is formed by volcanic activity or glacier retreat reveals bare rock, pioneer species must survive with few nutrients, little organic matter, direct sunlight,no cover, succeeded by grass shrubs & trees
Ecological succession culminates in a climax community
Producers plants, (autotrophs)self feeders- make their own food
Consumers Rabbit, Coyote (heteratrophs)acquire food from eating something else
Pedators & Prey Herbivours, carnivours, ominveres, decomposers – soil bacteria, breaking down organic materials
Energy Leaks where trophic levels meet moving enegry from one trophic level to another involves a long series of chemical reactions, energy loss to the enviornment
2ND Law of Thermodynamics cellular respiration (glucose + oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water, with some energy in the process being lost to the environment as heat
Biogeochemical cycles substances on earth travel through a continuous cycle from living organisms to the abiotic environment and back. Three cycles: water, carbon and nitrogen
The Earliest living organisms were ocean prokaryotes, Heterotrophs – obtaining energy and food from outside sources, living in an anaerobic environment and producing energy via anaerobic processes
Autotrophs organisms that convert inorganic materials into food
Chemoautotrophs Make food using chemical energy i.e. archea, and hydrogen sulfide
Adaptions traits that make an organism better suited to surviving, thriving and reproducing in its environment
Sexual selection attract mates
Fitness reproductive success
Animals Thermoregulate surface to volume ratio – heat balance, animals found in cold habitats – larger, limbs/ears are longer in hot habitats
Carl Von Linne (Carol Linneaus) developed a system for classification emphasized the shared similarities of organisms, father of taxonomy, gave us binoinal non menclature
Heirarchical Levels: Dear King Phillip came over for good soup Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Cladistics more exact allows predictions, helps biologist study the evolution of specific features
Three domains of life Bacteria, Archaee – The extremephiles, Eukarya – true nucleas (protist, plants, animals, fungi)
Bactria prokaryotes, autotrophs, others are heterotrophs, vary in shape, decomposers – breakdown organic material make nitrogen available to living things (yogurt)
Archea prokaryotes, extremeophiles, in hydrothermal vent habitats are chemoautotrophs make food from chemical energy
Domain Eukarya 4 Kingdoms: protist, fungi, plants, animals
Protists seaweed kelp algae diatoms, eglena, ambebas, plasmodiaum, paramiciian
Fungi mold, yeast, athletes foot, ringworm,
Plants moss, ferns, flowers
Animals multicellular, heterautophis, phyla – jellyfish, camderian, porifera – sponges, echinderms- starfish sand dollars
Chemical Reactions one or more new compound are formed as a result of the rearragement of atoms. Reactants —-Products
Law of mass conversation no atoms are gained or lost during any reaction – must be balanced
Acid Base Reaction: transfer of proton Acid – a chemical that denotes hydrogen ion, H+; Base – a chemical that accepts a hydrogen ion H
Oxidation Reduction Reactions Oxidation – lost of a electron
Reduction – gain of an electron
Must occur together
Corrosion the process where metal deteriorates through oxidation reduction reactions (rusty nail)
Combustion an oxidation -reduction between a non metallic material such as wood, oxygen (campfire)
Reactions Rate the speed with which products form from the reactants: concentration, temperature, catalyst
Exothermic Reactions self substaining chemical reaction that results in the net production of energy reactants = product + energy (campfire)
Endothermic Reaction continual input – a chemical reaction in which there is a net consumption of energy (photosynthesis)energy + reactants = products
Cellular Respiration cells break down to produce energy (ATP). The process is aerobic (uses energy) Three steps: Glycolysis, Krub cycle, Electron export
Cells the basic building blocks of life. Cells – Tissues – Organs – Systems
Characteristics of Living Things Use energy, develop and grow, maintain themselves, can reproduce, part of evolving populations, composed of cells
Prokaryote before nucleus-primitive (bacteria) single cell, dNA is found in a single circular chromosome, they usually have an outer cell wall
Eukaryote true nucleus, evolved (plants & animals) cells have a nucleus and maybe single or multicelled, contain dna inside the nucleus, organelles are larger than prokayote cells

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