Radiation of Birds

Question Answer
Clearly a maniraptoran theropod. Archaeopteryx
What is the difference between Jurassic bird Archaeopteryx and modern birds? Braincase expanded, bones of wing coalesced, ribs expanded, pelvis infused into a solid structure, tail reduced, sternum and breastbone enlarged.
Some think that it may not be a bird but a dromaeosaur because it has slashing second toe. Rahonavis
Retailed long bony tail well after other Mesozoic birds had reduced tail. Rahonavis
Has some synapomorphies with other birds. Rahonavis
Shaft of ulna much thicker than shaft of radius and their fibula does not reach proximal tarsals. Rahovanis and Jeholornis
Acromion process on scapula. Ulna shaft thicker than shaft of radius. Ulnar papillae for wing feather insertion. Rahonavis
Fibula does not reach proximal tarsals. Rahonavis
Cursorial terrestrial predators dromeosaurs
grasping arms. swivel writs join. posteriorly directed pubis. dromeosaurs
basically terrestrial, with flapping flight caudipteryx and archeopteryx
symmetrical vaned feathers on wings and tail. down-like feathers on body. long tail. caudipteryx
asymmetrical vaned wing and tail feathers. longer arms. reduced tail. archaeopteryx
arboreal iberomesornis
strut-like coracoid. fused pelvis. pygostyle. reduced foot claws. iberomesornis
improved low speed flight enetiornithes
increased skeletal fusion. deeper sternum. alula. shorter tail. enetiornithes
shorter back and tail. deeper sternum and keel. more compact back and hip. ichthyornithiformes
essentially modern flight icthyornithiformnes
extant birds neornithes
The decoupling of these caused hip-extension to knee-flexion. tail-hindlimb decoupling
Has a pygostyle characteristic confusiusornithidae of pygostylia
has 13 cervical vertebrae oviraptorosauria
strut-like coracoid, triosseal canal, 13 cervical vertebrae, alula enantiornithes of ornithothoraces
formed form fusion of caudal vertebrae to support tail feathers. pygostyle
adaptation for slow flight like on Eoalulavis alula
alula provides mid-wing slot on these type of birds modern birds
A type of Ornithothoraces. Sinornis
ossified sternum, trosseal canal, shorter tail, 11 dorsal vertebrae, center of mass toward forelimbs, hand shorter than forearm or humerus, tarsometatarsus and tibiotarsus. Sinornis
Types of Ornithomorpha. Patagopteryx and Vorona
metacaprals 2 and 3 partially or completely fused distally. complete fusion of metatarsals 2,3,4. orhithomorpha
sharp-pointed anterior process of quadrate, globe-shaped proximal head of humerus, pubis runs back parallel to ischium and ileum. ornithurae
a type of ornithurae hesperornithiformes
a type of carinatae ichthyornithiformes
ungual phalanx of major digit(finger 2) absent carinatae
a type of neornithes palaeognathae
teeth lost neornithes
consist primitively of paleognathae and neognathae. neornithes
vomer lost or reduced. moveable joint between palatine and pterygoid. pterygoid/braincase articulation lost. (derived palate) neognathae
during their development, ascending process starts out on astagalus and then switches to calcaneum. neognaths
modern paleognaths ratites
flightless birds of southern continents paleoghaths
tinamou and rhea of south america palaeognaths
emu of australia palaeognaths
ostrich of africa palaeognaths
kiwi of new zealand palaeognaths
cassowary of new guinea palaeoghaths
indicates that flightless ratites evolved form ancestors with flight keeled sternum with palaeognathous palate
indicates that most avian orders originated after Mesozoic older fossil record of birds
fossils and molecules lead to different conclusions with this saying that diversification occured in earliest Tertiary classical view of the fossil record
fossils and molecules lead to different conclusions with this saying that some lineages of modern birds predated K-T boundary. molecular dating of the radiation
molecular clock must be calibrated with date of relevant fossils. fossils must be complete enough for cladistic analysis. fossils must be accurately dated. issues with fossils and molecules
first cretaceous modern bird galliformes
second cretaceous modern bird anseriformes
third cretaceous modern bird gruiformes
fourth cretaceous modern bird struthioniformes
fifth cretaceous modern bird passeriformes
diversification of Neorthines into paleognaths and neoghaths took place in this period. Cretaceous
filled the niche of theropod dinosaurs that went extinct. had huge heads with bone-crushing jaws. terror birds of the early Cenozoic
giant vultures and dodo terror birds of the early Cenozoic
Ratites are what kind of clade? monophyletic
Where are these rarities found? Tinamous, ostrich, rheas? Africa and South America
Where are these rarities found? Kiwis, Cassowaries, emu? Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea
chickens and reltives belong in which group of neoghathae? galliformes
ducks and realtives belong in which group of neognathae? anseriformes
other neognathae that are not galliformes or anseriformes are called what? neoaves
anseriformes and galliformes are under the taxa galoanserae
perching birds. 6000 species. most speciose order. peasseriformes
ovenbirds, 6 families, limited songs, primarily South and Central America. suboscines
70 families, complex songs, worldwide. oscines
has no synapomorphies neoaves
birds as different as parrots, chickens, and eagles have almost identical what? skeletal structure
what accounts for the shortage of morphological synapomorphies for neoaves? flight. appears to have been an enormous constraint on avian skeletons
extensive moleuclar phylogeny of modern birds reveals a huge what? surprises
caprimulgiforms and hummingbirds/swifts are a what? clade
grebes are a clade with what? flamingos
herons and egrets are nested within what? pelicans
unusual frugivorous african birds are related to what? seabirds
mousebirds are related to what? owls
falcons are no longer raptors. they are related to what? parrots and passerines
this adaptation in passeriformes includes tendons in their sheaths perhcing
most morphological variation in birds is in their what? bills
they have extensive cranial kinesis birds
elongate hyoid bones enclosed by circular muscles. contraction of the muscles pushes the bones forward and causes the tongue to project. these are elaborate feeding adaptations in what? woodpeckers
while similar in morphology, birds are highly diverse in what? behavior
Drepanidninae in Fringillidae Hawaiian honeycreepers
description: short stout humerus. ulna supports wing feathers. four carpals, two distal ones fused with metacarpals to form carpometacarpus. neoaves forelimb
descrip: 3 fingers. pollux short, 2nd finger with 2 phalanges, 3rd finger with 1 phalanx. fingers buried in flesh, support primary flight feathers. neoaves forelimb
main joint of foot in middle of tarsus. proximal elements fused with tibia to firm tibiotarsus. distal elements fused with metatarsals to form tarsometatarus. neoaves hindlimb
3 middle toes well developed, first toe often reduced or absent with incomplete metatarsal and turned to rear. 3 principal metatarsals fused into single element with separate distal ends for toes 3, 4 and 5 phalanges, but central toe the longest neoaves hindlimb
posterior dorsal and proximal caudal vertebrae joined to original sacral vertebrate to form elongate synsacrum. neoaves pelvic region
ilium elongated and bound to synsacrum. ischium braced to ilium. pubis and ischium fused dorsally. tail short with 6 small free vertebrae, then fused into pygostyle for support of tail feathers neoaves pelvic region

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