psychology 100 chapters 1 through 3 prelim 1

Question Answer
define psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes
developmental psych study of how people grow/change physically, cognitively, emotionally, and socially from prenatal period through death
psysiological psych investigates biological basis of behavior
experimental psych investigates basic psychological processes such as sensation and perception, memory, intelligence, learning, and motivation
personality psych studies differences between individuals on such traits as sociability, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and self-esteem
clinical and counseling psych applies principles of psychology to mental health and adjustment. clinical focuses on diagnosis and treatment of disorders while counseling is more concerned with "normal" adjustment issues such as coping with a troubled relationship
social psych explores how society influences indivuals in their interpersonal attraction, persuasion, attitude formation, obedience, conformity, and group behavior
industrial and organizational psych applies principles of psychology to workplace focusing on practical issues of personnel selection and training, working conditions, workplace morale, and leadership
what are five issues psychologists deal with in what it means to be human? person/situation, nature/nurture, stability/change, diversity/universality, mind/body
what are the three main stages the history of psychology can be divided into? the emergence of a science of the mind, the behaviorist decades, and the "cognitive revolution"
which psychologist was associated with memory, selective attention, and voluntarism? Wundt
which psychologist broke down consciousness into three basic elements: physical sensations, feelings, and images and developed the structuralism theory? Titchener
who challenged structuralism and had a functionalism theory? James
who developed the psychodynamic theory which laid the foundation for the study of personality and psychological disorders? (deals with unconscious actions) sigmund freud
who developed the behaviorism definition of psychology (psychology being the study of observable and measurable behavior and the result of conditioning) Watson and Pavlov
Gestalt psychology refers to our tendency to see patterns, and to distinguish objects from a background
humanistic psych feelings and yearnings are key
cognitive psych study of our mental processes in the broadest sense: thinking, feeling,learning, and remembering
evolutionary psych focuses on origins of behavior patterns and mental processes, the adaptive value they have or had, and the functions they serve or served in our emergence as a distinct species
positive psych psychology should devote more attention to the good life: the study of subjective feelings of happiness and well being, the development of intimacy, integrity. leadership, wisdom, etc. that incourage individuals to flourish
when did psychology become it's own separate divison? late 1800s/ 19th century
a group within a larger society that shares a certain set of values beliefs outlooks and norms of behavior subculture
naturalistic observation studying human or animal behavior in natural context
main drawback of naturalistic observation observer bias- may not record things if they think it's irrelevant
case study detailed description of one person or a few individuals
drawback of case study can't draw general conclusions from one individual
survey research carefully selected group of people is asked a set of predetermined questions
draw of survey research people often go for the socially "correct" answer
drawback of correlational research doesn't explain cause and effect, no basis on drawing conclusions
what kind of research allows psychologists to examine relationships between two or more variables without manipulating any variable correlational
the method of research best suited to explaining behavior is… experimental
to ensure results of a particular study apply to a larger population, research use… random or representative samples
what are the five main career paths for students majoring in psych? psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, clinical psychologist, counseling psychologist, and social worker
neurons that collect messages sensory or afferent neurons
neurons that transmit messages from cns to muscles and glands motor or efferent neurons
neurons that carry messages from one neuron to the other interneurons or association neurons
glial cells hold neurons in place, provide nourishment, remove waste, prevent harmful substances from passing through blood into brain, and form myelin sheath
all or none law every firing of a particular neuron produces an impulse of the same strength
resting potential/polarized more negative ions inside the neuron than outside
neural impulse/action potential electrical charge, or depolarized neuron
graded potential a small temporary shift in electrical charge
acetylcholine involved in arousal, attention, memory, motivation, and movement. associated with muscle action
dopamine involved in wide variety of behaviors/emotions including pleasure and pain
serotonin involved in regulation of sleep, dreaing, mood, eating, pain, and aggressive behavior. associated with depression
norepinephrine affects arousal, wakefulness, learning, memory, and mood
endorphins involved in inhibition of pain, released during strenuous exercise (runners high)
neural plasticity brain changes in response to organisms experiences
hippocampus brain structure involved in forming memories
neurogenesis production of new brain cells
somatic nervous system transmits info about body movements and the external environment
autonomic nervous system transmits info to and from internal organs and glands
medulla controls breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure (is right above spinal cord in hindbrain)
pons produces chemicals that maintain our sleep-wake cycle(above medulla)
cerebellum contains more neurons than rest of brain, controls emotions, memory, attention, and coordination
thalamus relay station:all info passes through here
hypothalamus influence on motivation: hunger, thirst, sex drive, thus responsible for emotional behavior: rage, terror, pleasure
reticular formation netlike system of neurons that weave through all structure that send alert signals in response to incoming messages
cerebral cortex thin layer of gray matter that covers cerebrum and processes thought, vision, language, and emotions. takes up most of the room in skull
prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role in goal directed behavior, impulse control, and judgment
frontal lobe coordinates messages from other cerebral lobes; involved in complex problem solving
primary motor cortex part of frontal lobe, sends messages to muscles adn glands and plays key role in voluntary movement
central fissure separates primary somatosensory cortex from primary motor cortex
primary somatosensory cortex registers sensory messages from entire body
parietal lobe receives sensory info from sense receptors all over body, involved in spatial abilities
temporal lobe balance, emotion, understanding language, hearing
occipital lobe vision
limibic system consists of.. hippocampus and amygdala
amygdala governs emotions related to self-preservation
corpus callosum band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres
which hemisphere is responsible for learning to read and processing language? left
which hemisphere deals with visual and spacial tasks including music, face recognition, perception of emotion and color right
aphasias when strokes produce predictable language problems
"expressive" aphasia is linked to… Broca's area
"receptive" aphasia is linked to… Wernicke's area
microelectrode techniques used to study functions of individual neurons
macroelectrode techniques used to obtain a picture of the activity in a particular region of the brain
structural imaging family of techniques used to map structures in living brain
functional imaging family of techniques that image activity in brain as it responds to various stimuli
what is the main difference between the nervous and endocrine system? speed. hormones travel much slower than a nerve impulse
pineal gland secretes melanonin, regulates sleep-wake cycle
pituitary gland controlled by hypothalmus, regulates other glands, also involved in growth, uterine contractions, and milk production
parathyroids regulate calcium and phosphate levels, influencing excitability
thyroid secretes thyroxin which regulates metabolism
pancreas regulate blood sugar levels with hormones insulin and glucagon
adrenal adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla secretes hormones involved in stress and arousal when physically threatened
ovaries secrete estrogen
testes secrete testosterone
transduction the process of converting physical energy such as light or sound into electrochemical codes
absolute threshold the minimum intensity that physical energy reaching a receptor cell musch achieve to produce sensation
sensory adaptation senses automatically adjust to the overall
difference threshold smallest change in stimulation that you can detect 50% of the time (just noticeable difference). it varies according to the intensity of the stimulus
Weber's law theory that the difference threshold is a constant fraction or proportion of the original stimulus
what converts energy into a neural signal receptor cell
perception of sensory info that is below the threshold of awareness subliminal perception
fovea area of retina that is the center of the visual field
rods receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision and perception of brightness
cones receptor cells in retina responsible for color vision
which receptor cell is found mainly in fovea? cones, no rods are found here
bipolar cells specialized neurons that rods and cones connect to which have only one axon and one dendrite
ganglion cells neurons that connect bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain
blind spot the place on the retina where the axons of all ganglion cells join to form the optic nerve. no receptor cells here
optic chiasm where fibers from each optic nerve cross/meet in the center of the brain
trichromatic theory 3 kinds of receptors in the retina (red, green, blue)
opponent-process theory 3 pairs of receptors in retina (yellow-blue, red-green, black-white)
frequency measured in cycles per second in unit called hertz
pitch how high or low frequency is
amplitude height of sound wave, determines loudness
overtones accompanying sound waves that are different multiples of the frequency of the basic tone
timbre texture of the sound
oval window membrane across the opening between the middle ear and inner ear that conducts vibrations to the cochlea
cochlea part of inner ear containing fluid that vibrates, which in turn causes basilar membrane to vibrate
basilar membrane vibrating membrane in cochlea, contains sense receptors for sound
organ of Corti on surface of basilar membrane, contains receptor cells for hearing
auditory nerve bundle of axons that carries signals from ears to brain
place theory pitch is determined by location of greatest vibration on basilar membrane
frequency theory pitch is determined by frequency with which hair cells in cochlea fire
volley principle receptors in ear fire in sequence, complete pattern of firing corresponds to frequency of sound wave
kinesthetic senses senses of muscle movement, posture, and strain on muscles and joints
vestibular senses orientation or position in space that hep determine which way is up and down
gate-control theory a neurological gate in the spinal cord controls the transmission of pain impulses to the brain
biopsychosocial theory pain sensations involve three interrelated phenomena:biological mechanisms, psychological mechanisms, and social mechanisms
skin sensations include pressure, temperature, and pain
which senses provide awareness of our body's position? kinesthetic
perceptual constancy tendency to perceive objects as relatively stable and unchanging despite changing sensory info
monocular cues visual message that one eye alone can trasnmit
binocular cues require both eyes
interposition deals with relative position, occurs when one objects partly blocks a second
stereoscopic vision combination of two retinal images to give a three-dimensional perceptual experience
retinal disparity binocular distance cue based on the difference between the images cast on the two retinas when both eyes are focused on the same object
convergence depth cue from muscles controlling eye movement as the eyes turn inward to view a nearby stimulus
monaural cues cues to sound location in one ear
autokinetic illusion perceived motion created by absense of visual cues surrounding a single stationary object
stroboscopic motion apparent motion created by a rapid series of still images

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *