Protists and Fungi Science Test Study Guide

Question Answer
Kingdom Fungi includes: Mushrooms
Yeasts
Molds
What is fungi's most important job? To break down dead and decaying material("Nature's Recycler's") without fungi, earth would be buried in dead and decaying material.
Why was fungi classified as plants? 1 They do not move on their own. 2 They have cell walls.
Fungi got their own kingdom because… They do NOT make their own food.
Name some of fungi's characteristics: Eukaryotic
No chlorophyll.Do not make own food
Heterophs-Consumers
Get nutrients from organisms living nearby.
MOST fungi secrete enzymes:Chemicals used to break down food-to digest food OUTSIDE of the fungi
They do not move
Digested food absorbed
Saprophytes Decomposers (some fungi are)
Parasites (Some fungi are) organisms that live in or on other organisms and cause those organisms (called hosts) harm.
Ex: Athlet's foot and ringworm
Hyphae (Some fungi have bodies decomposed of this) masses of threadlike lubes that make up the body of most fungi. they are made to absorb food after it is digested.
Spores Simple reproductive cells that are less complex than seeds.
Some fungi are many celled except for… Yeast
Most fungi grow in what type of areas? Warm, humid, and dark. (like socks)
How are fungi classified? By the method of reproduction.
Bread mold is also known as… Zygote Fungi.
Sporangia Round spore cases found at the tips of upright hyphae. What these burst, spores are releassed into the air.
Hospitable Environment An environment with proper food, temperature, and moisture. If zygote spores land on this they will grow new threadlike fungi.
Sac fungi produce spores in an ___ which ___ when it bursts ___ Ascus-A sac-like spore case. When this bursts the spores are released into the environment. If the spores land on hospitable environment, they will grow new sac fungi.
Give an example of a sac fungi disease. Dutch Elm disease.
Yeast is 'special' because… It can reproduce sexually or asexually by budding.
It is single celled
It releases CO2 and alcohol when breaking down sugar during fermentation.
Fermentation The process of releasing energy from sugar without using oxygen.
*Important in bread and wine making!
Where does club fungi produce spores? In the basidia.
Gills: Rigid structures found underneath the caps of mushrooms which hold the basidia.
Mushroom Facts: Sproes fall out of the basidia because of gravity
If the spores land on hospitable environment, they will frow new club fungi
Other fungi in this group include bracket puffballs smut and rusts.
Lichens Are made up of fungus and algae living together.
Symbiosis (Mutualistic) A relationship between 2 organisms where both benefit from the relationship and neither is harmed by it.
Algae-gets food through photosynthesis
fungus-collects water and provides protection
Importance-good food source for animals, help in soil…
Symbiosis cont'd formation by breaking down rocks. help monitor pollution because ther are sinsitive to environmental changes.
Protists: Most are single-celled
Are eukaryotic
Are very diverse-scientists often call this "The trash kingdom" because many organisms that don't fit anywhere else are grouped here.
Protist traits: They all contain chlorophyll-make thir own food through photosynthesis.
They are called autotrophs-which means that they are producers.
Some such as ____ can move on their own Euglena.
Euglenas: Show characteristics of both plants and animals.
they have chloroplasts, so they can food like a plant.
They can move from place to place like an animal and take in food when light is not available and photosynthesis is not possible.
Diatoms: Thee cell walls are made of silicaa. This is the same substance that glass and sand are mad of-the shells are used in making reflective highway paint and toothpaste or other cleansers-They are an important aquatic food and good energy source b/c…
diatoms cont'd they are producers and release oxygen during photosynthesis.
Dinoflagellates: move using 2 flagella-one spins the dinoflagellate like a top and the other whips back and forth to propel it forward
can produce red tides.
Red Tides These are events caused by a population explosion of dinoflagellates in the water-they cause the water to become poisonous to many fish and marine animals and make the water look red b/c of the dinoflagellates' red pigment.
The Algaes (Green, red and brown.) Most of the world's ropical seaweeds are red algae.
All green algae are green and live in moist or wet environments. They can be single celled.
Most of the world's cool water seaweeds are brown algae and can grow very large
Brown Algae Ex: The kelp forests in Monterey Bay.
Algaes are commonly known as… Protozoans.
Algaes cont'd they cannot make their own food-they are called heterophs which means they are consumers
many exist as parasites living and feeding in or on other organisms
ther are classified (put into groups)by their method of locomotion (movement)
Amoebas: move using "false feet" called psuedopods-these are extensions of the cytoplasm where a psuedopod stretches forward, and the rest of the cytoplasm flowxs in that direction
have no difinite shape-they are like big blobs
use their psuedopods2take in food
Fagellates: move forward by whipping a flagellum(whip like tail) back and forth.
may live as parasites such as Trypanosoma which causes African Sleeping Sickness.
Ciliates: Ex:Paramecium
move using cilia-small hair like threadlike structures that extend from the cell membrane into the surrounding water-continuous beating of the hairs aids in moving the ciliate in any direction.
Sporozoans: are the only animal-like protists that cannot move on their own-instead, they need vectors-organisms that are used to carry the sporozoan from place to place-these vectors can be thought of as taxis
are all parasites
ex:the sporozoan that causes malaria
Sporozoans cont'd: VERY IMPORTANT it's NOT THE MOSQUITO that gives you malaria, it's the sporozoan carried in the blood of the mosquito-the malaria causing sporozoanis transferred to you when the mosquito bites you.
Sporozoans Traits: They exhibit characteristics of both protists and fungi
they cannot make their own food-they are consumers
many fungus-like protists are saprophytes-organisms that use dead or decaying materidl as a food and energy source-these are decomposers.
2 phyla of funguslike protists Slime molds
have beautiful colors
often live on logs or dead leaves
Water Molds
usually live underwater or moist environments
are most famous for the potato famine of Ireland in the 1840's

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