pre first mid term

Question Answer
vulva entire external genitalia in a woman
mons veneri has many nerve endings and pubic hair, fatty deposit
labia majora outer lips, extends from mons and contain nerve endings, darker skin and pubic hair, erotically sensitive
labia minora inner lips, hairless, filled with glands, blood vessels and nerve endings, swell and flush during arousal
vestibule between labia minora, contain clitoris, urethral opening and introutus
clitoris made of spongy tissue, internal and external portions, erectile
glans of clitoris pearl sized knob of tisssue, out of clitoral hood, made of corpos spongiosum
shaft of clitoris under clitoral hood, hardens during vasoocongestion, corupus cavernosa
crura internal extension of clitoris, wishbone shape, 3 inches long and wrap around urethra
urethra area where urine is discharged out of bladder
vestibular bulbs curved masses of erectile tissue, surround vestibule and udnderlie labia minora, erectile, lengthen and stiffen vagina
vaginal opening introitus entrance to vagina
hymen membranous fold of sking that covers vaginal opening, no know scientific function but social fucntion
perineum hairless sensitive area between introitus and anus, cut during an episiotomy
pelvic floor muslces PC muscle, KEGEL exercises increase tone of these muslces, tense during orgasm
sunnah removal of clitoral hood
infibulation clitoridectemy and removal of labia minora and some of labia majora, stiched to cover vestibule leaving only a small hole
clitoridectomy removal of clitoris
female reporductive tract formed by vagina, cervix, body of the uterus, oviducts or fallopian tubes, and two ovaries

functions: transport of sperm and ova, fertilization, pregnancy and passage of fetus during childbirth

vagina outermost part of reproductive tract, highly elastic, contain bacteria, sweating during arousal and contractions
three layers of vagina mucosa, muscle and outer fimbro elastic
grafenberg spot sensitivty on front wall of vagina
anus exit of gastrointestinal tract, little lubrication
uterus womb, hollow organ within pelvic cavity, upside down pear shaped
layers of uterus endometrium-shed during menstruation
myometrium-smooth muslce, important during child birth
perimetrium- tough outer layer
cervix bottom of the pear, bulges into vagina
OS connects vagina to cervix thru a short canal
oviducts fallopian tubes, 4 inches long, really thin, fertilization spot
ciliA hairlike structures in tubes that wave toward uterus moving ova
ovaries gonads, produce ova and secrete sex steroids, egg shaped
ovulation production of oocytes into ova-happens in ovaries
menstruation shedding of endometrium, three phases, menstrual, preovulatory and postovulatory
dysmenorrhea painful menstration that is severe enought o limit a woman's activites
breasts erotic and reproductive significances,mammary glands lie between skin and muscles of chest wall
alveolus microscopic cavities that produce breast milk
areola dark circles where nipple is located
breast cancer 180,000 US women diagnosed each year, 13.2 of women develop the disease, factors that alter risk, genes, age, reproductive history, alcohol, obesity , exercise, med history hormones
penis erectile erotically sensitive organ in males, functions include sexual pleasure, delivery of semen and urination
root of penis portion of penis that lies within the body 2 inches long consists of two crura, back of the copora cavernosa and central culb and corpus spongiosum , connects shaft to pelvic cavity
shaft external elongated portion of penis
contains the two corpora cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum
glans of penis head, terminal knob of the penis containing foreskin that govers the glans acorn shaped has nerve endings
corona rim of penis, crown, very sensitive
frenulum loose strip of skin running on the underside of the penis running between glans and shaft , very sensitive
foreskin flap of skin that covers head of penis, removed in circumcision
scrotum loose bag of skin that hangs behind the penis and contains the 2 testicles, lightly covered in hair and possesses sweat glands, has a smooth muscle that contract in response to cold that bring the testes closer to the body
testicles egg shaped, produce sperm and secrete sex hormones
epididymis structure where sperm is stored and matured before entering the vans deferens , C shaped around the testes
Spermatic Cord two cords that include the vas deferens, blood vessels and cremster muscle(contracts to bring testes up) that pass through the inguinal canal to the testicle , connect testes to organ systems in abdominal cavity
Vas Deferens (Vas) tube that carries mature sperm away from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory duct ormed by the junction of the vas and duct of seminal vesicle and empties into the urethra within the prostate
seminiferous tubules majority of internal structure of testes, site of sperm production, squiggly coils
spermatogenesis production of sperm, each man produces about 100 million sperm per day
interstitial cells located in between tubules in testes, produce hormones
Prostate Gland single gland located at base of bladder that surrounds urethra, secretes hormones that compose semen, larger than a walnut, secretes alkaline fluid, major component of semen
seminal vesicles two glands on either side of prostate, but add their own secretions which cause sperm tails to start wiggling
Bulbourethral Glands (a.k.a Cowper’s Glands) lie below prostate glands pea sized glands near root of penis, excrete basic pre cum prior to ejaculation
semen thick cloudy liquid that is expelled from male urethra at ejaculation/climax, sperm is only 1%, 30% is from prostate and 70% is from seminal vesicles
emission ejaculation inevitibility,2 to 3 seconds, pleasurable
loading of semen constituents into posterior urethra before ejaculation

ejaculation muscle contractions and pumping of semen through urethra and penis
orgasm pleasure felt by muscle contractions,
Androgen testosterone

Promotes expression of male typical gendered traits
responsible for maintaining sex drive in men

estrogens(in men) maintain bone density, growth of limbs, sperm-required for male fertility
Progestins counteracts androgens, necessary for proper functioning of androgens and estrogens in male body
fimbria fingerlike substances that "pick up" ovaries and bring them into fallopian tubes
follicle a sac containing 1 egg, create ovum and release into oviducts
smegma cheesy stuff that builds up under foreskin , can get infected
cavernous bodies corpora cavernosa, two tubes in middle of penis that allow blood to flow through
spongy body corpus spongiousum, single cavity on botom, forms glans
myotonia increased muscle tension/contraction
fantasy imagined sexual experiences during waking hours, promotes sexual arousal
fantasy in M vs W men fantasize more than women, M are more adventruous, W fantasize more about marriage, W fantasize about stuff they have already done, M about things they havent, fantasies tend to be consistent with stereotypes about M and W
Gay/lesbian fantasy similar to hetero, except with sex they like
fantasies without guilt leads to a better sex life
arousal increases due to flirting, sexual negotiation and sexual contact
m aroused psychologically and genitally by images appropriate to sexual orientation
w aroused by men and women regardless of sexual orientation
missattribution of arousal the tendency of nonsexual arousal to cause arousal (i.e. fear, excitement
testosterones affect on arousal no short term influence on sexual desire

Sexual activity triggers testosterone ^, but high testosterone does not trigger a desire for sexual activity
Testosterone does influence arousability in adult M

hypogonadal producing insufficient levels of sex hormones(=v in sexual desire/activity)
classical/pavlovian conditioning a form of learning in which a novel stimulus is linked with a ___pre-existing reflex
Sexual response cycle the sequence of physiological processes that accompany sexual behavior
excitement, plateu, orgasm, resolution
excitement phase in W genital response, vasocongestion of labia minora, vaginal lubrication, erection of clitoris and nipples, swelling of breasts and uterus, increase in heart rate and blood pressure
excitement phase in M erection of penis, contraction of cremaster to elevate testicles, nipples erect, can be from 1 min to 1 hour
plateau phase in W arousal is maintained
thightening of walls of vagina, orgasmic platform, glans of clitores retracts, breasts swell, sex flush, increase heart rate and blood pressure, myotonia
plateau phase in M sex flush, myotonia, secretion of pre cum, stronger erection, heart and respiration increase
resolution phase arousal subsides, physiological signs of arousal reverse themselves, takes 15 minutes
multiple orgasms during which further sexual stimulation does not lead to a renewed erection or second orgasm
refractory period after M orgasms, sexual stimulation does not lead to renewed erection or second orgasm 30-90 mins, can be lessened
masturbation sexual self stimulation, many negative attitudes towards it
reasons for masturbation relieve sexual tension, physical pleasure, no available partner
studying childhood sexuality difficult because children are supposed to be sexually innocent
UCLA study on children children saw parents naked or engaging in sexual behavior were no more likely to experience psychological problems in later childhood or adolescence, tendency to have fewer problems
genital exploration solitary sexual activityin children is common and normal
erections in young boys can be part of a generalized arousal response – not necessarily sexually oriented
impersonal sexual activity

can also occur during childhood
Showing genitals to adults or other children
Attempting to view the genitals of others
child adult contact mostly involve older children and are single encounters, most aren'ts strangers
sex-segregated years Gender norms may traumatize pre-gay children
they are nonconformist sometimes and will stand out from other children, time when gender norms are strict , internalization of homophobic attitudes occu
puberty in girls pubic hair, growth of reproductive organs, breasts(buds) menarch
puberty in boys enlargement of testicles, lengthening and thickening of penis, pubic hair, voice box grows, gynecomastia(growth of small breasts) acne, 1rst ejaculation occurs at 13, underarm hair, acne
cause of puberty achievement of critical body weight, girls is 6, boys is 120
Primary Amenorrhea girls who don't have a lot of body fat may not begin to menstruate at all , failure to begin menstruating at puberty
Secondary Amenorrhea if women lose body fat after puberty their menstrual cycles may cease
Precocious puberty puberty that begins too early
– Considered too early if girls develop breasts and pubic hair before age 8 for girls and 9 for boys , more likely to become sexualy mature or active, can lead to social and psychological problems
fetishism sexual arousal by inanimate objects, materials or parts of the body when it pla ys an important role in a person's sex life
object fetishisms fetish is about a thing
media fetishism materials are the fetish
partialism attraction is about a body part
Cross Dress wear clothing of another sex
may do it to get privileges only granted to a certain sex or doe it for entertainment purposes
Doing Drag ntertainment purposes , over the top
Transgendered Cross Dressing
May be a vital expression of their gender identity, not about a fetish or erotic arousal
Transvestic Fetishism or transvestism having a fetish of wearing women's clothes, many of these men are married and progress from liking a piece of clothing, then to wearing the clothing and progressively getting more extreme
Sadism arousal by inflicting pain or witnessing someone in pain
Masochism sexual arousal from being subjected to pain, bondage or humiliation
key element of BDSM forced submission
bondage use of physical restraint
dominance use of humiliation or subservience
arsgr fb edge play bdsm that pushes the limits
adult babies fetish from acting as baby or toddler, dress up in diapers
paraphilia unusual and problematic form of sexual arousal or behavior that is considered to be a psychological problem
3 main issues involving paraphilia is there distress?, is the behavior required for arousal? is there a victim
exhibitionism exposure of gentitalia to non consenting strangers(fllashing)
indecent exposure related to obscene telephone calling, men who do this lack social skills and feel inadequate
Voyeurism “peepers” men who are erotically focused on watching women doing private things ex undressing, naked, sex, g oing to the bathroom
Frotteurism touching or rubbing clothed genitals against a stranger without consent or even knowledge in crowded public places
Zoophilia persistent preference for sexual contact with animals, evein if there is a willing human partner Most occur during adolescence or pre adolescence and can hardly be considered a paraphilia

bestiality sexual contact between a person and an animal (an obsolete term)
Necrophilia sexual arousal from viewing or having contact with dead bodies
Persistent and distressing fixation on sexual violence A paraphilia when they commit violence because the violence itself is sexually arousing
Autoerotic asphyxia self strangulation for purpose of sexual arousal
Pedophile fetish where arousal is directed toward pre-pubescent children (some are molesters, some not)
Child molester adult who has sexual contact with a child (some are pedophiles some aren't)
hebephilia attraction to girls or boys in puberty
ephebophilia attraction to children of post puberty
NAMBLA North American Man-Boy Love Association
opposes age of consent laws, argues some children can consent, raises questions of parent's rights in regards to kids having sex
sex offenders and repeating offenses as a group, less likely to repeat offense
recidivism the act of repeating a crime
biological factors of paraphilia could run in families , May result from deficiencies in cerebral white matter Damage to certain specific brain regions

Learning Processes of paraphilia Classical/ Pavlovian conditioning: gradually begin to associate pleasurable sex with a certain object or act
Courtship Disorder(paraphilia) Some paraphilias can be seen as a disorder of normal courtship behavior
four stages of finding a partner couple with four types of paraphilia
May represent a sexual escape route paraphilia Some people may become paraphiliacs due to absence of social skills
Cycle of Abuse cycle in which some abused children grow up to repeat similar forms of abuse on others
hypersexuality excessive sexual desire or behavior
1.Behavioral approaches to paraphilia aversion therapy-reverse conditioning: unpleasant experiences are timed with the previous turn on
covert sensitization- type of aversion therapy where the person is told to picture the negative thing in their mind
Psychotherapeutic Approaches to paraphilia cognitive therapy which attempts to correct paraphiliac’s way of thinking
show offenders that the victims aren't feeling what they thought was good, show them that their thought process is flawed and how to stop it
Drug Treatments to paraphilia Biological Approaches)
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which lower a person's interest in sex , or block testosterone

Some appear to be effective but have some serious side effects

Castration removal of testicles, eliminated androgens and lowers sex drive
approaches to paraphilias behavioral, psychotherapeutic, drug treatments and castration
sexual response (un)conditioned stimulus > (un)conditioned respone
touch to genitals > lubrication, erection
conditioned is a turn on
nervous system and erection sensory input reaches erection reflex center and sends the response to open arteries and erection occurs
retrograde ejaculation semen flows into bladder not into urethra, outer sphincter tightens rather than inner sphincter forcing the semen up
similarities in F and M sex reflex personal descriptions are similar, sacral reflex, thoracic and lumbar reflexes, orgasm and pelvic congestive syndrome
sacral reflex penis erection / lubrication, vasocongestion
thoracic and lumbar reflexes firmer erection, more lubrication, emission and positive feelings prior to orgasm
orgasm(similarites with m and w) contractions each .8 seconds
pelvic congestive syndrome blue balls and taylor's syndrome
biological theory of sex strong and direct biological influences on behavior, nature
social learning theory weak and indirect biological influences on behavior, nurture, brain cortex size is large in humans, humans can cover up all biological differences in male or females
masturbation bad when done in excesss that person stops interacting with others, done with inappropriate fantasies(sex with kids or force) that they become intense turn-ons, person has willing sex partners but rather masturbates
why F masturbate less genitals are smaller, less likely to discover pleasure, F recieve more punishment, mother disapprove and are 3x more likely to discuss immorality of it
childhood learning about sex via curiosity, observation, exploration
not based on complex adult motivations or sexual interpretations
most is simply curiosity
“Teachable moments” situations that will pique a child's curiosity
natural motivation to ask questions and learn
ex. while bathing, white nude, while changing clothes
first intercourse men enjoy first intercourse, women don't really
men have higher anxiety, but both are high
men are somewhat guilty and women are a bit more
men have a 79% chance of O women have 7%
sexual arousal during puberty begins earlier for boys and occurs more often
several times a day, girls only once a week
more intense and distracting for boys than girls
more related to being in a romantic relationship for girls
nocturnal orgasm- wet dream
happen to boys 17x a year
happen to girls 4x a year
college study on flirting M&W interaction at pub, showed footage, M saw seduction, W saw friendliness= misunderstandings can lead to date rape
rophynol roofies, decrease motor skills and sense of time
female adolescence and sex fear of pregnancy and stds, cautious messages from other femaels , worry on labels or fear of rape or abuse
coercion M are pressured to be sex experts,
date rapists men who have forced sex with females
date rapists techniques and feelings DR had more peer experience with gang bangs, fixed- up sex and “easy” women recommended by friends
DR's peers expect men to have more sex than most college men do
Frustrated with sex life
had more sex
baldwin study of hook ups less people hook up now, but more people think that hook ups are more common
different sex positions A(all positive) B(some negative) C(a lot of negative)
positives are rewarding experiences, genital stimulation, orgasm, other persons pleasure, novelty
5 steps to bondage and dominance 1- pinned on bed, 2-ties gently, 3- ties tighter, 4- slaps, 5-hits
adult sex should be able to happen way into 70s, decline in sex life is not bio-age determined
decline in sex life due to decrease in novelty, increase in competing responses, increase in negative associations, marital dissatisfaction, decline in general health
sexual peak around 20 for men 30 for women, but doesn't always go down, can plateau at optimal
priapism penis won't go down, due to constriction can cause damage
epididymitis inflammation of epididymis, caused by trauma or infection
orchitis inflammation or swelling of testicle caused by infection
variocele enlargement of the veins that drain tesitcle, can be corrected surgically
hydrocele collection of fluid in the space surrounding one testicle, not dangerous
torsion twisting of a testicle that cuts off its blood supply
balanitis inflammation of glans due to poor hygiene of infection
phimosis inability to retract foreskin
paraphimosis entrapment of a retracted foreskin behind corona of the glans
peyronies disease unnatural curvature of the penis
prostatitis inflammation of prostate glands due to infection by e.coli or other microorganisms
enlarged prostate benign prostatic hypertrophy, , not cancerous, can interfere with urination
prostate cancer most common non-skin cancer among american men, common after 70 , high fat diet, age and genetics increase risk
path taken by sperm from epididymis to urethra starts in testes>epididymis>vas deferens via spermatic cord> ejaculatory duct where prostate and seminal vesicle secretions are added> at emission this is loaded into urethra>ejaculated through shaft of penis via urethra
5 theories of paraphilias biological factors(running in families, brain damage), conditioning, courtship disorder(blockage in brain, freud), sexual escape route, cycle of abuse, or more than of these

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