Nur 1113 Phamac Terminology Quiz 2

Question Answer
absorption movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids
action describes the mechanism by which a specific drug produces physiologic and biochemical changes at the cell, tissue, and organ level
analgesia drug that relieves pain
adrenergic term applied to nerve fibers that when stimulated, release epinephrine at their endings
adverse/side effect the development of undesired effects or toxicity cause by the administration of drugs
agonist a drug that mimics at least some of the effects of an endogenous substance
anaphylactoid reaction an excessive allergic reaction to a substance manifested by wheezing, chills, generalized pruitic uticaria, diaphoresis, agitation, flushing, difficulty breathing, and/or cardiovascular collapse
antagonist an agent that blocks a cellular receptor, preventing the binding and subsequent effect of endogenous substance
anticoagulant agent which delays or prevent blood coagulation
anticholinergic an agent that blocks parasympatheic nerve impulses resulting in dry mouth, decreased peristalsis, constipation, urinary retention, and blurred vision
antiemetic agent that prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting
antineoplastic agent used to treat cancer
antitussive agent that prevents or relieves coughing
beta blocker drugs that block acton of epinephrine at beta-adrenergic receptor sites located in the myocardium (beta 1) and bronchioles and vascular smooth muscle (beta 2)
bioavailability the rate and extent of drug absorption from and administration site into the systemic circulation
Blood dyscrasia a pathological condition manifested by fever, sore mouth or sore throat, unexplained fatigue, easy bruising, or bleeding
brand name usually a registered trademark owned by a specific manufacturer; also known as trade name or proprietary name
broad-spectrum a term that applies to antibiotics effective against a variety of microorganisms
cardiotonic various agents,such a digitalis, which increase the tone of the heart by influencing the force of muscle contractility; old term for a cardiac glycoside
chemical name name which describes the drug's chemical structure
cholinergic an agent that produces the effect of the chmical transmitter acetylcholine. Results in lacrimation, diaphoresis, salivation, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
clinical trials investigational drugs that test the usefulness of drugs or treatments
disintegration the process of breaking up: the breakdown of the tablet or pill into smaller particles
dissolution process whereby one substance is dissolved into another; the smaller particles from disintegration are dissolved in gastrointestinal fluid for absorption
distribution the dissemination of a drug to its ultimate site of acton. Is impacted by the extent to which a drug is bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin
diuretic an agent that increases the secretion of urine either by increaing glomerular infiltration or by decreasing reabsorption from the renal tubules
duration the average length of time a drug is present in the body and exerting its effect
electrolytes ionized substances, such as acids, bases, and salts, which are present in blood tissue-fluids and cells, and include salts of sodium, potassium, and chloride
generic name the official or nonproprietaty name of a drug; a univeral name
half-life the time required by the body, tissue, or organ to metabolize or inactivate half the amount of the substance taken in
hepatic toxicity the impairment of the liver function manifested by jaundice, dark urine, pruitus, light colored stools, itching skin or rash, persistently high elevations of liver enzymes
histamine blocker an agent which blocks the stimulation of cells by histamine. acts by interfering with the action of histamine rather than by preventing its secretion
loading dose a large initial dose of a drug administered in an effort to achieve a rapid minimum effective concentration (MEC) in the plasma for obtaining desired drug action
metabolism or biotransformation the alternation by a drug by the body into new chemicals that are less active, less toxic, and more easily excreted by the body; this action usually occurs in the liver
mineral a naturally occurring inorganic substance that is essential to body function
nephrotoxicity an impairment of the nephrons of the kidney manifested by one or more of the following: oliguria, urinary frequency, hematuria, cloudy urine, rising BUN and serum creatinine, fever
onset of action begins when the drug enters the plasma and continues intil it reaches minimum effective concentration (MEC)
ototoxicity an impairment of the ear manifested by one or more of the following: headache, dizziness or vertigo, nausea and vomiting with motion, ataxia, nystagmus
peak refers to the time when a drig reaches its highest plasma concentration according to the route of administration; can indicate the rate of absorption of the drug
pharmaceutical phase phase or stage of drug action in which drug action in which the medication enters the body in one form and changes into another form, in order to be utilized by the body
pharmacodynamics deals with interactions between the chemical components of living systems and the foreign chemicals (including drugs) that enter living organisms; the action of a drug; the way a drug affects a body
pharmacokinetics describes the way the body deals with drug, including absorption, distribution, bio-transformation (metabolism), and excretion. Also deals with onset, peak, and duration of the drug in the body
placebo inactive substance given to satisfy a client's demand for medicine
pregnancy category classification of drugs according to risk-benefit ratio for the mother and fetus. Catagories include A, B, C, D, and X with A being the lowest risk and X being the highest
protein-bound the binding of a drug to proteins within the body, especially albumin. drug which are protein-bound are not free to diffuse across cell membranes to the final site of action
receptor a cell component that combines with a drug or hormone to alter the function of the cell
receptor sites sites on cell membrances that react with specific other chemicals to cause an effect; a drug may be effective because it reacts with a specific respector-site on particular cells in the body
scheduled drug a controlled substance, such as a narcotic. controlled substance are classified as belonging to one of the five schedules (I to V), according to abuse potential, with I having th highest risk and V having the lowest potential for abuse
superinfection a new infection by an orgsm different from the initial one being tx's by antimicrobial therapy manifested by 1+ following: black, hairy tongue, glossitis, stomatitis, anal itching; loose, foul-smelling stools; vaginal itching or D/c, sudden fever, cough
synergistic action cooperative active by 2 or 2+ drugs in which one drug potentiates the other drug results in effect that is > the combined effect of 2 drugs from the same catagory. result? a lesser than normal dose of 1 drug is needed b/c it'spotentiated by the other drug
therapeutic range decribes those drug concentrations below which desired effect will not be achieved and above which unacceptable toxicity will occur
trade name same as the brand name
though level losest plasma concentration of a drug; measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated
toxicity the extent or quality of being poisonous
vitamin essential organic substances found in foods, and needed for health and life

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