Nervous System

Question Answer
What 2 categories is the nervous system divided into? Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
What are the 2 kinds of cells that are found in the nervous system? Neurons and supporting/glial cells
What are the 2 types of transport systems in long axons? Axoplasmic flow and Axonal transport
What is the molecular motor of the anterograde transport? Kinesin
What is the molecular motor of the retrograde transport system of the axon? Dynein
Does the anterograde transport move materials towards or away from the cell body? Away
Does the retrograde transport move materials towards or away from the cell body? Towards
What type of special transport system rapidly moves large and insoluble compounds bidirectionally along microtubles? Axonal transport
What type of special transport system moves soluble compounds toward nerve endings via rhythmic contractions of the axon? Axonplasmic flow
What do you call a group of cell bodies in the CNS? Nuclei
What do you call a group of cell bodies in the PNS? Ganglia
What is the functional classification of neurons that conduct impulses toward the CNS? Sensory/Afferent
What is the functional classification of neurons that carry impulses out of the CNS? Motor/Efferent
What is the functional classification of neurons that integrate the NS activity and is located entirely inside the CNS? Association/Interneurons
What is the 3 structural classification of neurons? Pseudounipolar, Bipolar, and Multipolar
What type of neurons cell body sits along side of a single process as in a sensory neuron? Pseudounipolar
What type of neurons does the dendrite and axon arise from opposite ends of the cell body as in retinal neurons? Bipolar
What type of neuron has many dendrites and one axon as in motor neurons? Multipolar
What are the 2 types of supporting (glial)cells in the PNS? Schwann and satellite (ganglionic gliocytes) cells
What are the 4 types of supporting (glial) cell in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes, ependymal cells
In the PNS what type of cell myelinates the axon by wrapping round and round the axon? Schwann
What type of supporting cell electrically insulates the axon? Schwann
What are the uninsulated gaps between adjacent schwann cell called? Node of Ranvier
What is the most common glial cell? Astrocyte
What glial cell is involved in buffering K+ levels, recycling neurotransmitters, regulating adult neurogenesis, and releasing transmitters that regulate neuronal activity? Astrocytes
What is located in the brain that allows only certain compounds to enter the brain and is formed by capillary specializations that appear to be induced by astrocytes? Blood brain barrier
At rest (RMP), all cells have a (negative/positive) internal charge and an (equal/unequal) distribution of ions. Negative/unequal
What channels are always open? K+ leakage channels are always open
What channels have a molecular gate that can be opened by depolarization? Voltage-gated (VG) channels
What are the 2 types of K+ channels? Leakage channels that are always open and gated channel that are closed during RMP
Between Na+ and K+, the inside of the cell has a higher concentration of which one? K+
Does the outside of the cell have a higher concentration of Na+ or K+? Na+
A wave of MP change that sweeps along the axon from the soma to the synapse is called what? Action Potential (AP)
Action Potential causes a wave to form by rapid depolarization of the membrane by _____ influx; followed by rapid repolarization by _____ efflux. Na+/K+
Where does AP occur in a myelinated axon? Nodes of Ranvier
Where are Na+ channels located in a myelinated axon? Only at the nodes
A functional connection between a neuron and another cell is called what? Synapse
What are the 2 types of synaptic neurons? Chemical and electrical
What type of synapse is it when depolarization flows from presynaptic into postsynaptic cell through channels called gap junctions? Electrical synapse
What type of synapse is one-way and occurs through the release of chemical neurotransmitters from presynaptic axon endings? Chemical synapse
The gap junctions in an electrical synapse are formed by proteins called what? Connexin
In a chemical synapse, once the APs travel down the axon to depolarize the bouton what VG channels open? Ca++
How is Ca++ driven into the bouton? Electrochemical gradient
Once Ca++ is driven into the bouton what is triggered? Exocytosis of the vesicles and release of the NTs
What stimulates the fusion of exocytosis and the release of the NTs? Ca++/protein complex
What type of regulated channels open in response to the binding of postsynaptic receptor proteins to the NT ligands? Chemically regulated channels
What is the most widely used NT? Acetylcholine
What NT are used in the brain and the autonomic nervous system? Acetylcholine
Where is acetylcholinesterase which inactivates acetylcholine located? In the cleft
Voltage-regulated channels open in response to what? Depolarization
Voltage regulated channels are mainly found where? In the axons
Chemically regulate channels are usually found where? Post synaptic membrane
Where is the site where APs are normally initiated and which has many VG channels? Axon Hillock
What is irreversibly fired when the MP reaches threshold because positive feedback opens more and more Na+ channels? AP
What are the 3 types of monoamine NTs? Serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine
What is serotonin derived from? Tryptophan
What is norepinephrin and dopamine derived from? tyrosine
After the release of monoamine NTs, most are inactivated by ______ ______ and breakdown by _____________ ________ Presynaptic reuptake/monoamine oxidase
What are the 2 NTs called catecholamines? Norepinephrine and dopamine
What NT is involved in regulation of mood, behavior, appetite and cerbral circulation? Serotonin
LSD is structurally similar to what NT? Serotonin
What NTs are antidepressants? SSRI (serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors
What are 4 examples of drugs that are SSRIs? Prozac, zoloft, paxil, luvox
What does the drugs paxil, prozac, luvox, and zoloft block? Reuptake of serotonin
What are the 2 dopamine systems in the brain? Nigrostriatal dopamine system and the mesolimbic dopamine system
Degeneration of what dopamine system in the brain causes Parkinson's disease? Nigrostriatal dopamine system
What dopamine system in the brain is involved with behavior and emotional reward? Mesolimbic dopamine system
Most addictions activate what dopamine system in the brain? Mesolimbic
Overactivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system in the brain contributes to what condition? Schizophrenia
The degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system causes what disease? Parkinson's
Norephinephrine is used in the PNS and CNS. In the PNS is NE a sympathetic or parasypathetic NT? Sympathetic
Norephinephrine in the CNS affects general level of arousal. What drugs stimulates the NE pathways? Amphetamines

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