Mostly definition. Some fun “latin” roots are defined.

Question Answer
Definintion of "plasma" Something formed
Definition of "lemma" from the word plasmalemma Husk
Another name for Plasma membrane Cell membrane
Glycocalyx An external carbohydrate coat found on the plasma membrane
Lipids Materials that are insoluble in water-fats, oils, and steroids. (3 kinds in the plasma membrane)
Phospholipids Highest in number. Contain phosphate. And are polar.
Hydophobic Term used to describe the non-charged, water repelling tails of the phospholipids
Hydrophilic Term used to describe the charged, water loving head of the phospholipids.
Phospholipid bilayer Formed because of the way the charged and non charged ends of the phospholipids associate w/eachother.
Intracellular fluid ICF Fluid within the cell
Extracellular fluid ECF Fluid outside the cell
Cholesterol Type of lipid called a steroid. Also amounts to about 20% of plasma membrane lipids
Located in the bilayer. Strenghtens the membrane and stabilizes membrane at temp extremes Cholestrol
Glycolipids Make up about 5-10% of all lipids. Located only on the outer layer. Involved in intracellular adhesion, and cell to cell recognition and communications
Proteins Complex diverse molecules composed of chains of smaller molecules called amino acids
Make up about 1/2 the plasma membrane by weight. And is responsible for most of the membrane's specific functions. Protiens
Integral proteins These are embedded within, and extend across, the phospholipid bilayer
These act ac membrane channels, providing a pore through which specific substances pass Integral proteins
Receptors Serves as binding sites for molecules outside the cell.
Integral proteins are similiar to phospholipids in that they- Have hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions.
Perifpheral proteins Are attached loosely to either the external or internal surface of the membrane. They float about the bilayer.
Enzymes Both integral and peripheral proteins may serve as catalysts and are known by this term.
Change the rate of a metabolic reaction without being affected by the reaction itself. Enzymes
Glycoproteins An integral protein with an attached carbohydrate group.
This type of protein together with another type of lipid form the fuzzy glycocalyx on external surface of the plasma membrane. Glycoproteins
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
Function of ATP Provides energy for some transports by releasing energy when the third bond in the molecule is broken.
This function of the plasma proteins is responsible for junctions that form btwn some neighboring cells when proteins in the membranes attach. Intercellular connection
This function of the plasma proteins maintains the cell shape by the attachment of structural proteins inside the cell. Anchor for the cytoskelton
This function of plasma proteins is the catalyst that changes metaboli rates of reactions. Enzyme activity
This function of plasma proteins has carb components of glycoproteins and glycolipids that aid in _____. Cell to cell recognition.
This is a plasma protein function that sends messages from a molecule outside the cell to a molecule inside the cell. Signal transduction
Factors that influence membrane permeability-these _____ bind to specific carbs and helps them move across the membrane. Transport proteins
Factors that influence membrane permeability-______ differs which enables some molecules to cross the bilayer and others to not pass. Plasma membrane structure
Factors that influence membrane permeability-Materials tend to move more rapidly when their ______ is signficicantly different btwn the two compartments. Concentration gradient
Factors that influence membrane permeability-
Permeability depends on the ______, which determines attractiveness.
Ionic charge
Factors that influence membrane permeability-Materials that are ______ easily disovlve to pass through the bilayer. ex, nonpolar fatty acids. Whereas, complex sugars are non_______, and do not pass through. Lipid soluble (solubility)
Factors that influence membrane permeability-Some molecules and ions move continuosly across the bilayer because of _____. Molecular size
Concentration Gadient The flow of materials from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Passive transport processes include: Osmosis, simple diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, and bulk filtration.
Factors influencing membrane permeability: Transport proteins, Plasma membrane structure, Concentration gradient, ionic charge, lipid solubilty, and molecular size.
Definition of Diffusion To pour in different directions
Simple diffusion: The tendency of molecules to move down their concentration gradient.
Equilibrium: A point where the concentration gradient no longer exhists.
Net movement: A result of the concentration gradient, and coninues until molecules are evenly distributed.
Osmosis: Simple diffusion in which WATER diffuses from one side of the selectivlely permeable membrane to the other, continues until equilibrium is established.
Facilitated diffusion: Requires a specific transport protein to help certain large molecules and nonlipid soluble molecules cross the bilayer.
How facilitated diffusion occurs. By binding the molecules to the transport protein, which alters the size and shape of both, allowing molecules to pass
Hydrostatic pressure: Fluid pressure exerted by blood pushing against the inside wall of a blood vessel
Bulk filtration: Involves the diffusion of solvents and solutes together.
Solutes: Liquids that have solutes disolved in them.
How bulk filtration works. When hydrostatic pressure forces water ans small solutes from the blood across the plasma membranes th
Active transport: The movement of a substance across a plasma membrane against the concentration gradient.
Types of Active transport: ion pumps and Bulk transport
Ion pumps: Active transport process that moves ions across the membrand.
Sodium-potassium pump: Moves one ion into the cell while removing another type of ion from the cell.
Some human cells require,or have, higher concentrations of potassium and lower sodium. What process is used to maintain this steep concentration gradient. Sodium-potassium pump
Bulk transport: Occurs because/when macromolecules (large proteins) and polysaccharides cannot move across the plasma membrane.
Exocytosis: Large molecules are secreted from the cell.
How exocytosis occurs When vesicles and plasma membrane come into contact; and lipid molecules from the vesicle and the bilayers rearrange to fuse. The macromolecule is then released to the outside of the cell. This process requires the use of ATP.
Endocytosis: Large paticulate substances and macromolecules are taken into the cell
How endocytosis occurs Extracellualr macromolecules and large particulates are packed in a vesicle that forms at the cell surface, a pocket is formed then the bilayer fuses, forming a new vesicle containing the material to be brought into the cell.
types of bulk transport: exocytosis, endocytosis: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
Invagination: A small area of plasma membrane folds inward to form a pocket.
Phagocytosis: Cellular eating
Psuedopodia: A membrane extension formed during phagocytosis.
How phagocytosis occurs When a cell engulfs an external particle then membrane extensions are formed and particle is packaged within. sat_flash_1s then digested after fusion w/a lysome
Pinocytosis: Cellular drinking
How pinocytosis occurs: Occurs when the cell internalizes small droplet of extracellular fluid into tiny vesicles. This process is non specific because all solutes are dissolved and taken in by the cell.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis: The movement of specific molecules from teh extracellular environment into a cell by way of anewly formed vesicle.
How receptor-mediated endocytosis occurs This is a specific mechanism. the Endocytosis is stimulated by binding of specific molecules to their specific membrane receptors. A pocket is formed, then pinced off, bilayer fuses, then incoming molecule is taken into the cell. ATP is used.
Example of receptor-mediated endocytosis Cholestrol bound proteins called LDL receptors(low-density lipoproteins)
Example of pinocytosis Cells from capillary wall, vesicles fill w/fluid containing solutes from blood, then carry it to other side of cell then expel its sat_flash_1s outside the capillary wall
Example of phagocytosis White blood cell engulfs and digests a bacterium
Example of Simple diffusion Oxygen continually moves from the lung air sacs into the blood, while carbon dioxide moves in the opposite direction

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