mixtures and solutions

Question Answer
Mixture Two or more materials stirred together
Property A characteristic of an object something you can observe such as size, color, shape, or texture
Solution A special mixture formed when a material dissolves in a liquid.
Dissolving Is a process in which one material disperses uniformly into another material, so that the first material seems to disappear
What happens if you add water to a cup containing dry materials? Water and solid material can make a mixture.
How can a mixture be separated? Some mixtures can be separated with filters.
The materials in a mixture retain their own _________ ________. chemical properties
A solution is ______________ a mixture, but a mixture is ______________ a solution.

always or not always

A solution is always a mixture, but a mixture is not always a solution.
Evaporation Causes liquid to dry up.
The liquid turns to gas and disperses into the air,
leaving any dissolved solid material behind.
Crystal The solid form of a material that can be identified by its properties,such as shape, color, and pattern.
How can a solution be separated? When a solution evaporates, it leaves the dissolved solid material behind.
How can the material left behind by evaporation be identified? If the evaporation material forms a crystal, it can be identified by its properties, such as shape and pattern.
How would you separate the following mixtures:

1. gravel and water mixture
2. powder and water mixture
3. salt and water solution

1. Screen-gravel & water mixture
2. Paper filter-powder & water mixture
3. Evaporation-salt & water solution
A ______ is made of two parts, the solvent and the solute. Solution
The ______ is the liquid,
and the _____ is the material that dissolves in the solvent.
The solvent is the liquid,
and the solute is the material that dissolves in the solvent.
Salt water
Salt =
Water =
Salt = Solute
Water = Solvent
Because so many things dissolve in water, it is sometimes called the _________ universal solvent
Define: Saturated Solution When a solute dissolves in a solvent until no more will dissolve.
Is there a limit to the amount of salt that will dissolve in water? Salt will dissolve in water until it reaches saturation.

No more salt will dissolve once saturation is reached.

We were able to dissolve ______ of salt in 50ml of water. 10-15g
How can you determine the amount of salt present in a saturated volume of water? The amount of salt in a saturated solution can be determined by weighing the saturated solution and subtracting the mass of the water.
Define: solubility The property that substances have of dissolving in solvent, such as the solubility of salt in water.
How can you dissolve more solute? More solute can be dissolved by adding more solvent.
The hotter the solvent (water) the more solute (salt) can be dissolved.
Which is more soluble in water,
salt or citric acid?
Citric acid is about 4 times more soluble in water than salt is.
We were able to dissolve ___________ g of citric acid in 50 ml of water. 45g-65g
Supersaturated solution A saturated solution that contains more dissolved solute that it should at its current temperature.
Concentration The amount of material dissolved in a measure of liquid.
Dilute To make a solution less concentrated,usually by adding more liquid (solvent).
Volume The three-dimensional space
occupied by something.
What happens to the soft-drink solution when you increase the amount of powder in a given amount of water? As the amount of solute in a solution increases,the concentration goes up.
How can you determine the relative concentrations of solutions?
1. When equal volumes of two solutions are compared on a balance, the ________________
one is more concentrated.
heavier
How can you determine the relative concentrations of solutions?
2. When you add salt to water, the volume of liquid ________________
increases
How can you determine the relative concentrations of solutions?
3. When you use a balance to compare concentration of solutions, you must compare

______________________ (the same amount)

equal volumes
Concentration is a ratio between quantities of ___________ and __________. solvent and solute
Change The process of becoming something different.
Chemical reaction When two or more materials (chemicals)are mixed together and a new material is formed.
Reaction Forms new materials with properties that are
different from the properties of the original chemicals.
Precipitate A solid material that forms as a
product of a reaction.
What happens when a solution is made with water and two different solutes?

Sometimes when two (or more) chemicals are mixed, ______________ take place and new materials form.

changes
How do you know when a chemical reaction has occurred?

Changes, such as:

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
are evidence of a chemical reaction.

Changes, such as:
temperature change
formation of a gas
change in color
precipitate formation

are evidence of a chemical reaction.

Chemical Reaction
What changes occurred?
Do you recognize the crystals after evaporation?
Have you seen similar crystals before?
Where did the salt come from?
How did the salt get into the cup?
Before the reaction
Calcium chloride + baking soda
+ water
baking soda is sodium bicarbonate

After the reaction:
calcium carbonate (chalk)+
Sodium chloride (salt) +
Carbon dioxide

How can you find out if the liquid that came through the filter is a solution? If a liquid is a solution, it might be separated by ________. Some products of a reaction are __________ and can be observed only after evaporating the solution. If a liquid is a solution, it might be separated by evaporation.

Some products of a reaction are soluble and can be observed only after evaporating the solution.

Reactant A chemical that reacts when mixed with another chemical.
Only chemicals that actually react are called reactants.
Product The new material created in a chemical reaction.

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