Methodologies, Forces, Energy & Motion, Waves and Electromagnetic Spectrum

Question Answer
How is the scientific method used to solve problems? an orderly method for gaining, organizing and applying new knowledge.
Components that make up scientific method? observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, conclusion
What is the principal of falsifiability In order for a hypothesis to be considered scientific, it must be testable and aim to prove things to be false.
Define fact. a phenomenon about which competent observers can agree.
Define theory foundation, but evolves. Example: theory of relativity
Define Law hypothesis tested over and over a/k/a principle
Define evidence
Define experiment
What did Galileo do to challenge Aristotle's belief that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones? He experimented. He dropped heavy and light objects from Tower of Pisa
What is a system? Digestive system, tree, etc.
How are systems used to study science/biology? Whole is greater than sum of its parts.
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? Inductive reasoning – observe to reach conclusion. Deductive reasoning – From general to specific.
How is creativity used in science? x
How are hypotheses used in scientific inquiry? Tentative answer to well-framed questions.
What elements are imporant when designing a controlled experiment? Exclude variable.
How does a hypothesis differ from a scientific theory? Hypothesis is a guess. A theory is based on foundation, but evolves.
What is the relationship between science and technology? Science gathers knowledge and organizes it. Technology provides instruments to conduct investigations.
Explain how field studies are used in science. x
Define biology Matther that is alive.
Chemistry How matter is put together.
Physics. Motoin, force, energy.
Geology. Earth
Earth science Physics and chemistry applied to earth
Astronomy Apply physics, chemistry, and geology to planets and stars.
What is the goal of using an integrated approach to study science? To understand the world, enhanced beauty and appreciation for nature.
Explain the limitations of science. x
Explain the limitations of a scientific investigation. Unseen error in experiments.
How does biology integrate other disciplines? Give an example. x
Describe the themes that unify biology. x
Define grams Measures mass
Define Liters Measures volume
Define micrometers Measures very small objects (ants, etc.)
Define km/hr Kilometers per hour – measures speed
Define millimeters measures length
Define meters/second/second (m/s2) acceleration of freefall
Define amperes Measures rate of electrical flow
Define pH units measures potential of hydrogen
Define Newtons Measures units of force
define volts measures electrical pressure
define ohms measures electrical resistance
define joules measures energy
define millivolts 1/1000 of a volt; milli=1,000
define nanometers measures distance
define kilograms measures mass
define Kelvin measures temperature
define grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) measures mass density
define meters measures length
define watts measures electricity
Why do we use machines? Conserve energy
What is the equation for work? Work = force x distance
How does a simple machine affect work output? multiplies forces or changes direction of force
How does a simple machine affect force output? increases magnitude – a mechanical advantage has been produced.
What is the difference between force output and work output? x
List the types of simple machines. Lever, wheel & axlly, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, screw
What is the mechanical advantage of a lever? Applied force of 10 pounds will balance resisted force of 100 pounds (jack, etc.)
What is the mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle? Speed and distance increased five times
What is the mechanical advantage of a pulley? Changes direction of force
What is the mechanical advantage of an inclined plane? x
What is the mechanical advantage of a wedge? x
What is the mechanical advantage of a screw? x
What is gravitational force? gravitational force between objects due to mass
Explain what happens to the gravitational force when there is a change in mass and/or distance. Force becomes weaker.
Use an example to explain the inverse-square law. Light gets dimmer with distance.
What is projectile motion? Only force acting on object is gravity.
How does an object become a satellite? If it moves fast enought so that its curved path matches earth's curvature.
What happens to a satellite when its speed exceeds 8 km/s? It will overshoot a circular path and wioll trace an oval path – an ellipse
Explain the role of gravity in the formation of solar systems and galaxies. Dust attractd together by gravity collapsed
List the ways that gravity affects the objects in the solar system. Gravity makes planets spherical, maitain orbits.
Why does the same side of the moon always face the earth? Moon rotates as earth rotates.
Explain the relationship between thermal energy and gravitational force in a star's life cycle. When stars/planets contract, gravitational potential energy is converted to thermal energy
How does gravity affect light in a black hole? It absorbs all light.
How does gravitational field affect light? Causes path of light to be bent.
What is the electrical force? Positives repel positives, but attract negatives.
Explain the conservation of charge. When something is charged, no electrons are created or destroyed; just transferred from one material to another
How is Coulomb's law regarding electrical force similar to Newton's law of universal gravitation? The electrical force, like gravitational force, decreases as distance increases.
How does Coulomb's law differ from Newton's law of universal gravitation? Electrical forces attract or repel; gravity only attracts
Describe the inverse-square law Charge and gravity decreases with distance
What happens when a charged particle enters an electric field? Force on positive charge (proton) is in same direction as field.
How can electric potential energy increase? Do work on it; pushing positively charged article closer
Explain what volt means when referring to a nine-volt battery. Electrical potential and voltage are same thing.
Explain why glass is an insulator whereas silver is a conductor. electrical conductors are materials that allow charged particles (electrons) to pass through easily; metals have loose electrons-glass has bonded electrons.
Why is a potential difference needed for an electric current? Charges flow from higher potential to lower potential; without difference,, no flow of charge will occur.
Explain the difference between direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). DC – electrons move from negative to positive in same direction. AC – electgrons move in both directions.
Explain the relationship between current, resistance, and voltage in ohm's law. Twice current for twice voltage. The greater the resistance, the smaller the current.
What is a resistor? Circuit element that regulates current.
How does a parallel circuit differ from a series circuit? Parallel has more than one path. Series has only one way around.
How does magnetic force differ from electric force? The force exerted between two magnetic poles
Explain what makes an object magnetic. Movement of electrical charges and miniature magnetic field of particles.
How doe sa compass work? The earth is a huge magnet.
What is an electromagnet? Charges at rest do not respond to magnets.
Describe how moving charges interact with a magnetic field. They are deflected.
Why does a magnet deflect a current-carrying wire? Charged particles inside the wire are also deflected.
Explain electromagnetic induction. An electric field is induced in any region of space in which a magnetic field is changing with time.
How do electric motors work? Rotating coils of wire driven by magnetic force.
What is potential energy? Energy stored in an object due to its position.
Example of potential energy. Compressed spring
Example of electrical potential energy. Batteries
Example of chemical potential energy glucose molecule, fuels
Example of gravitational potential energy elevated objects
What factors affect the amount of gravitational potential energy? elevation, weight
Explain what happens to kinetic energy when the mass and speed of an object changes. twice mass = twice kinetic energy. If you double speed of car, you increase kinetic energy x7; triple speed, x9
Examples of different types of kinetic energy Moving car, wind, divers – anything in motion
Explain the law of conservation of energy. In the absence of external work or output, the energy of a system remains unchanged. Energy cannon be created or destroyed.
What is Newton's first law of motion? Objects at rest stay at rest or in a straight line unless force is applied.
What is Newton's second law of motion? Acceleration is due to force and mass
What is Newton's third law of motion? When one object exerts a force on another, it pushes back with equal force
What is a wave? A vibration/wiggle that travels.
Describe amplitude Distance from midpoint/center of wave to top/crest
describe wavelength distance from beginning of one wave to beginning of next wave
Describe frequency number of to and fro vibrations in one second
describe period the time required for a vibration/wave to make a complete cycle
summarize radio waves AM is measured in kilohertz – 960 am broadcasts at 960,000 vibrations per second. FM broadcasts radio waves at frequency of 101,7000,000 hertz
Explain the difference between a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave transvers – perpendicular/sideways to direction wave travels; longitudinal – parallel to direction of wave.
Give example of transverse wave radio waves, lightwaves, musicla instruments
Give example of longitudinal wave slinky
What changes the pitch of sound? The Doppler Effect – ambulance getting closer, the waves are more frequent and has higher pitch; once ambulance passes, waves are less frequent and has lower pitch
Explain how different factors affect the speed of sound? Sound travels faster in warm air, faster in water than air, and even faster in steel – cannot travel in a vacuum
Why do submerged objects appear to be nearer the surface than they actually are? refraction
Explain reflection The returning of a wave to the medium from which it came when it hits a barrier
explain refraction bending of waves due to change in medium
explain diffraction bending of light by means other than reflection or refraction
Give example of constructive intereferenc increases amplitude
Give exmaple of destructive interference decreases amplitude
Describe how the Doppler Effect explains teh change in pitch of a fire-engine siren and the movement of a galaxy When light approaches, increase in frequency-blue; decreasing is red. Galaxies are moving farther away
How does light act as both a wave and a particle? It is a sdtream of photons when it reacts with metal or other conductor, otherwise, it is a wave
Explain how energy is transferred by transverse waves vibrate up and down and side to side
explain how energy is transferred by longitudinal waves compress and expand
explain how energy is transferred by sound waves x
explain how energy is transferred by infrasonic waves x
explain how energy is transferred by ultrasonic waves x
explain how energy is transferred by radio waves x
explain how energy is transferred by ocean waves x
What is an electromagnetic wave? An energy-carrying wave produced when an electric charge accelerates.
explain how energy is transferred by S-waves (secondary earthquke waves) This is a body wave and transvers, cannot travel through liquid
Describe how a tsunami transfers energy Seismic sea wave cauesd by earthquake, volcano, or explosion; overlying plate bends downward and then snaps up; subduction zones
Describe the types of electromagnetic waves that are located on the electromagnetic spectrum x
Compare the wavelengths, frequency, and energy of the different types of electromagnet waves x
What is an electromagnetic wave? An energy-carrying wave produced when an electric charge accelerates
How are all electromagnetic waves the same? How do they differ? Travel at same speed; differ in frequency and wavelength
What do we use gamma rays for? highest frequency – only in space – most dangerous
What do we use x-rays for? medical, fractures, bones, teeth
What do we use Ultraviolet radiation for? Blacklights
What do we use infrared? Photography
What do we use microwaves for? cooking!
What do we use radio waves for (AM and FM)

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