Lytle – APES Ch 2 Vocab

Question Answer
controlled experiment an experiment designed to test the effects of independent variables on a dependent variable by changing only 1 independent variable at a time
deductive reasoning drawing a conclusion from initial definitions and assumptions by means of logical reasoning
dependent variable a variable that changes in response to changes in an independent variable; a variable taken as the outcome of 1 or more other variables
disprovability the idea that a statement can be said o be scientific if someone can clearly state a method or test by which it might be disproved
fact something that is known based on actual experience and observation
hypothesis An explanation set forth in a manner that can be tested and disproved. A tested hypothesis is accepted until and unless it has been disproved.
independent variable the variable that is manipulated by the investigator. In an observational study, it is the variable that is believed to affect an outcome, or dependent variable.
inductive reasoning drawing a general conclusion from a limited set of specific observations
inference 1) a conclusion derived by logical reasoning from premises and/or evidence (observations or facts), or 2) a conclusion, based on evidence, arrived at by insight or analogy, rather than derived solely by logical processes
manipulated variable see independent variable
model a deliberately simplified explanation, often physical, mathematical, pictorial, or computer-simulated, of complex phenomena or processes
observations information obtained through 1 or more of the 5 senses or through instruments that extend the senses, such as a microscope or telescope.
operational definitions definitions that tell you what you need to look for or do in or order to carry out an operation, such as measuring, constructing, or manipulating
premises in science, initial definitions and assumptions
probability the likelihood that an event will occur
pseudoscientific describes ideas that are claimed to have scientific validity but are inherently untestable and/or lack empirical support and/or are arrived at through faulty reasoning or poor scientific methodology
qualitative data Data distinguished by qualities or attributes that cannot be or are not expressed as quantities. For example color, shape, or relative size.
quantitative data Data expressed as numbers or numerical measurements. For example, a frequency on the electromagnetic spectrum instead of a color.
responding variable see dependent variable
scientific method a set of systematic methods by which scientists investigate natural phenomena, including gathering data, formulating and testing hypotheses, and developing scientific theories and laws
scientific theory a grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence, in contrast to a guess, a hypothesis, a prediction, a notion, or a belief
theories scientific models that offer broad, fundamental explanations of related phenomena and are supported by consistent and extensive evidence

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