Lytle – APES Ch 15 Vocab

Question Answer
area sources Also called nonpoint sources. There are diffused sources of pollution such as urban runoff or automobile exhaust. They are often difficult to isolate and correct because of the widely dispersed nature of the emissions.
asbestos A term for several minerals that have the form of small elongated particles. Some types of particles are believed to be carcinogenic or to carry with them carcinogenic materials
biomagnification Tendency for some substances to concentrate w/ each trophic level. Organisms store certain chemicals & excrete others. When this occurs consistently, the stored chemicals increase as a % of the body wt as the material's transferred along a food chain.
carcinogen Any material that is known to produce cancer in humans or other animals
contamination Presence of undesirable material that makes something unfil for a particular use.
disease Often due to an imbalance resulting from poor adjustment between the individual and the environment.
dose response The principle that the effect of a certain chemical on an individual depends on the dose or concentration of that chemical
ecological gradient A change in the relative abundance of a species or group of species or group of species along a line or an area.
ED-50 The effective dose, or dose that causes an effect in50% of the population on exposure to a particular toxicant.It is related to the onset of specific symptoms,such as loss of hearing, nausea,or slurred speech.
electromagnetic fields (EMFs) Magnetic & electrical fields produced naturally by our planet and also by appliances such as toasters, cell phones, & computers. There's currently controversy concerning potential adverse health effects related to exposure to EMF from artificial sources.
heavy metals Metals including lead, mercury, arsenic, silver(among others) with a relatively high atomic number(number of protons in nucleus of atom) Often toxic at relatively low concentrations causing variety of environmental problems.
hormonally active agent (HAA) Chemicals in the environment able to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in animals, including humans
LD-50 A crude approximation of a chemical toxicity defined as the dose at which 50% of the population dies on exposure
mobile sources Sources of air pollutants that move from place to place, for example, automobiles trucks,buses, and trains.
noise pollution A type of pollution characterized by unwanted or potentially damaging sound.
organic compounds A compound of carbon;originally used to refer to the compounds found in and formed by living things
particulates Small particles of solid/liquid substances that are released into the atmosphere by many activities, including farming,volcanic eruption,burning fossil fuels.Particulates affect human health,ecosystems,and the biosphere.
persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Synthetic carbon-based compounds often containing chlorine that do not easily break down in the environment.Many were introduced decades before their harmful effects were fully understood and are now banned or restricted
point sources Pollution as smokestacks,pipes,accidental spills that are readily identified & stationary. Often thought to be easier to recognize & control than area sources.
pollution The process by which something becomes impure defiled, dirty, or otherwise unclean.
risk assessment Determining potential adverse environ. health effects to people following exposure to pollutants & other toxic materials.Includes 4 steps of I.D.of hazard,dose-response assess.,exposure assess.;risk characteristics.
synergism Cooperative action of different substances such that the combined effect is greater than the sum of the effects taken separately.
synthetic organic compounds Compounds of carbon produced synthetically by human industrial processes, as for example pesticides and herbicides
TD-50 The toxic dose defined as the dose that is toxic to 50% of a population exposed to the toxin.
thermal pollution A type of pollution that occurs when heat is released into water or air and produces undesirable effects on the environment
threshold A point in the operation of a system at which a change occurs. With respect to toxicology,it is a level below which effects are not observable and above which effects become apparent
tolerance The ability to withstand stress resulting from exposure to a pollutant or harmful condition
toxic Harmful, deadly, or poisonous.
toxicology The science concerned with study of poisons(or toxins)and their effects on living organisms.The subject also includes clinical, industrial,economic legal problems associated with toxic materials.
mitigate To cause to become less harsh or hostile.
risk mitigation A systematic reduction in the extent of exposure to a risk and/or the likelihood of its occurrence.
ubiquitous Existing or being everywhere at the same time: constantly encountered: widespread

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