genetic disorders

Question Answer
What is a genetic disorder? an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
Some genetic disorders are caused by what? mutations in the DNA of genes, changes in the overall structure or number of chromosomes
What is Cystic fibrosis? a genetic disorder in which the body produces abnormally thick mucus in the lungs and intestines
What is cystic fibrosis caused by? a recessive allele on one chromosome
What is sickle-cell disease? a disease that affects hemoglobin, a protein in red-blood cells that carries oxygen
What is the allele for the sickle cell trait? codominant with the normal allele
What is hemophilia? A genetic disorder in which a person's blood clots very slowly or not at all
Is hemophilia more common in males or females? males
What is hemophilia caused by? a recessive allele on the X chromosome
What is Down syndrome? a genetic disorder where a person's cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21
When does Down syndrome most often occur? when chromosomes fail to seperate properly during meiosis
What is an affect of Down syndrome? have some degree of mental retardation, and heart defects are more common, but can be treated
What is one important tool that geneticists use to trace the inheritance of traits in humans a pedigree
What is the definition of 'pedigree'? a chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
In a pedigree, what geometric shape represents a male? square
In a pedigree, what geometric shape represents a female? circle
What does a completely shaded square or circle represent? that the person has the trait
What indicates that the person is a carrier in a pedigree/ a half-shaded circle or square
What tools do geneticists use to help diagnose genetic disorders? a karyotype
How are people with genetic disorders helped? Through medical care, education, job training, and other methods
what is a karyotype? a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
What can a karyotype reveal? whether a person has the corect number of of chromosomes in his or her cells
A couple that has a family history of a genetic disorder may turn to whom for help? a genetic counselor
What are three methods for developing organisms with desirable traits? Selective breeding, cloning, and genetic engineering
What does the technique of inbreeding involve? crossing two individuals that have similar characteristics
Inbred organisms are what? genetically similar
What happens in hybridization? breeders cross two genetically different individuals?
What is a clone? an organism that has exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced
What ANIMALS have been cloned before? sheep, goats, and pigs!
What happens during the process of genetic engineering? genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism
What can genetic engineering produce and improve? medicines and food crops
What does the process of gene therapy involve? inserting copies of a gene directly into a person's cells
What is a genome/ all the DNA in one cell of an organism
Whta is the main goal of the Human Genome Project? to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome
Who are the only people that have exactly identical DNA fingerprints? identical twins

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