Final Study Guide

Question Answer
Name the primary germ layers? Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm
What does ectoderm form? skin, lining of oral & nasal cavity, enamel, salivary glands, nerves
What does mesoderm form? skeleton, muscles, blood(connective tissues),some internal organs
What does endoderm form? lining of lungs, G.I, genitourinary system, pharynx, liver
Name the types of tissues? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve
Where in the body can you find all 4 types of tissues? tongue
Which tissues are mostly composed of cells? muscle, nerve
Which is the most abundant basic tissue by weight? connective
What are the 2 basic components of blood? plasma, cellular formed parts
Which white blood cell is the first line of defense? neutrophils
Which white blood cell is present during long standing infections? plasma cells
Which tissue does not contain any blood vessels? epithelial
What are the different variations of connective tissues? solid-soft: adipose & areolar
solid-firm: cartilage
solid-rigid: bone (calcified)
fluid: blood/lymph
What does the supraperiosteal arterioles supply blood to? facial and lingual surfaces of alveolar bone
What are the functions of the B and T lymphocytes? T-cell mediated, promotes phagocytosis
B-produces plasma cells, humoral defense
Where would you find stratified squamous epithelium? skin, lining of mouth, pharynx, vagina, part of bladder
What are the 3 forms of SSE? keratinized, nonkeratinized, or parakeratinized
What layers are always present in any type of SSE? basal, prickle
How many layers are present in (ortho)keratinized epithelium? all 4 layers present
What is the most common OMM in the oral cavity? nonkeratinized epithelium (lining mucosa)
Name the nonepithelial resident cells present in epithelium? melanocytes, langerhans, merkle, wbc's
What OMM is greatest in the palate but can be found in parts of the masticatory and specialized? (ortho)keratinized
What OMM can be found in most areas of masticatory and some of specialized? parakeratinized
What is a thin noncellular membrane between connective tissue and the basal cell layer of epithelium that supports and cushions epithelium and acts as a filter barrier for epithelium and connective tissue? basement membrane
What are the 2 main layers of basement membrane? basal lamina, reticular lamina
Epithelium is attached to connective tissue via ___________ through the basement membrane. hemidesmosomes
Which layer of the basement membrane is an amorphous layer; collagen fibers; derived from epithelial tissue? basal lamina
What is reticular lamina derived from? connective tissue
What are the 2 layers of connective tissue? papillary, reticular
Which layer of connective tissue is the bulk of lamina propia? reticular
Tall narrow epithelial extensions called ______, project into CT and cause stippling. rete pegs
What are 2 ways of attachment for the CT of the oral mucosa? attached directly and rests on a submucosa
Where can submucosa be found? mostly in palate (except in areas of rugae and raphe) cheeks and lips. *never in gingiva*
Color of gingiva depends upon? pigmentation, keratinization, thickness of epithelium, vascularity
Why is attached gingiva and buccal mucosa mainly pink – not red? because of the thickness of the epithelium
What OMM(s) is considered masticatory mucosa? hard palate
What OMM(s) is considered specialized mucosa? dorsal surface of tongue
What OMM(s) is considered linning mucosa? lips, buccal, ventral of tongue, floor of mouth, soft palate, sulcus, alveolar mucosa
Which layer of epithelium is 2-3 cells thick? granular
Most of mitosis takes place in which layer of epithelium? basal
In what kind of epithelium is the granular layer indistinct from the top layer? parakeratinized
In what kind of epithelium is the basal and prickle lyers the only distinct layers? nonkeratinized
Name the major salivary glands fome largest to smallest parotid, submandibular, sublingual
Which minor salivary gland is associated with circumvallate papillae and secretes only serous? von Ebner's
What are the CT components of salivary glands? CT-capsule, septum
What is the function of the myoepithelial cell? surrounds end of acini and squeezes saliva out into ducts
What are the functions of saliva? mastication, solvent, digestive, lubricant, buffer
T/F Does saliva inhibit growth of bacteria? true – by proteins in saliva
A cleft lip will be obvious by the end of the _______ month in utero. second
The palate forms between the ______ and ______ weeks in utero. sixth, twelfth
The ______ should be completely fused by the end of the ______ week. palate, twelfth
A cleft palate becomes visible by the end of the _____ month in utero. third
What fails to fuse if cleft lip? maxillary process and globular (median nasal) process
What fails to fuse if cleft palate? palatal shelves with primary palate or with each other
Which stage of development takes place between 2-8 wks and is where most malformation occurs? embryonic
Which stage of development is a time of growth and maturation? fetal
What are neural crest cells derived from? ectoderm, neurectoderm
Neural crest cells only differentiate in the ______ region at cephalic end of neural tube. facial
What is the most critical time for facial development? 3-6wks
After creation of the stomodeum __________ arch and related tissues are the first portions to form. mandibular
Mesoderm of first (man) arch arch forms muscles of ________ mastication
Mesoderm of second (hyoid) arch forms muscles of _________ facial expression
All facial and oral structures form from the frontal process and the first brachial (pharyngeal) arch (mandibular) except for the _________ base of the tongue
In what weeks does the tongue develop? 4-8
In what weeks does the maxillary lip develop? 4-6
In what week does tooth development begin? 6
What is the first sign of tooth development? primary dental lamina
What does the enamel organ form? enamel (ectoderm)
What does the dental papilla form? pulp, dentin (mesenchyme)
What does the dental sac form? cementum, pdl, lamina dura (mesenchyme)
What are the 2 embryonic tissues in a tooth germ? ectoderm, mesenchyme
What embryonic tissue from the dental lamina is from oral epithelium and forms enamel? ectoderm
What embryonic tissue from neural crest cells, underlies ectoderm and is a specialized connective tissue? mesenchyme
What are the 2 phases in tooth development? morphodifferentiation, cytodifferentiation
In what phase of tooth development is the shape of the tooth established? morphodifferentiation
What occurs during the cytodifferentiation or histodifferentiation phase of tooth development? process of differentiation of specialized groups of cells into enamel, dentin, cementum or pulp forming cells
What are the 3 stages of enamel organ development? bud, cap, bell
What are the 4 layers of the enamel organ? OEE, SR, SI, IEE
The cervical loop is where the ____ and ____ meet at the most apical edge. OEE, IEE
Cervical loop is the future area of the _____ CEJ
During the bell stage fibroblasts differentiate into what? odontoblasts
What forms first dentin or enamel? dentin
What does the Hertwigs root sheath do? guides formation of the root
What forms the Hertwigs root sheath? OEE and IEE
What determines how many roots a tooth will have? epithelial diaphragm
What does REE become? epithelial lining of th sulcus and the (primary) junctional epithelium

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *