Final Exam Glossary Terms

Question Answer
Advance regeneration Seedlings or saplings that develop or are present in the understory.
Adventitious Pertaining to a plant part that develops outside the usual order of time, position or tissue. For example, an adventitious bud arises from any part of a stem, leaf or root but lacks vascular connection with the pith.
Basal area Cross-sectional area of a tree at breast height (1.37m).
Browse Leaves, buds, and new twigs of woody plants.
CAI Current annual increment. Amount of increment accumulated in the current year.
Cleaning Cutting or release treatment made in a stand, not past sapling stage, to free the best trees from undesirable individuals of the same age that overtop them or are likely to do so.
Cohort Group of trees arising after a single disturbance and commonly consisting of trees of similar age (but not always!).
Coppice The production of new stems from the stump or roots; any shoot arising from an adventitious or dormant bud near the base of a woody plant that has been cut back.
Crown bulk density Mass of available fuel per unit of crown volume on an individual tree basis. May also be expressed as stand bulk density for an entire stand of trees.
Cutting cycle The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand.
Differentiation Also stand differentiation. Development of crown classes within a stand.
Downed woody debris / coarse woody debris Any piece of dead woody material (dead boles, limbs and large root masses) on the ground in forest stands or in streams.
Dysgenic Being detrimental to the genetic qualities of future generations, applying especially to human-caused deterioration such as from high-grading a forest stand.
Fire-resistant tree A species with morphological characteristics that give it a lower probability of being injured or killed by fire. Example characteristics include thick platy or corky bark and buds protected by long needles.
Forest A collection of stands administered as an integrated unit (usually under one ownership).
Fuel loading Weight of fuel per unit area. Typically reported in tons per acre (or metric tons per hectare); used in predicting fire behavior.
Growing space An intangible measure of the capacity of plants to grow until a factor necessary for growth becomes limiting. Alternate definition: physical area available to and utilized by a tree.
Growing stock Trees reserved in a forest to continue production.
Habitat type An aggregation of units of land capable of producing similar plant communities at climax; potential vegetation.
Harvest tree age In uneven-aged systems, the age at which trees are harvested.
Herbage Leaves, stems, rhizomes, and roots of non-woody plants.
Hiding or escape cover Habitat providing shelter from predators.
Integrated pest management Ecological and economic efficiency coupled with social acceptability to prevent, suppress or regulate insects and diseases to maintain tolerable levels.
Intermediate treatment Any treatment or tending designed to enhance growth, quality, vigor, and composition of the stand after establishment or regeneration and prior to final harvest.
Ladder fuels Combustible material that provides vertical continuity between vegetation strata and allows fire to climb into the crowns of trees or shrubs with relative ease.
Liberation Release of young stands not past the sapling stage from the competition of distinctly older, overtopping trees. Trees removed were present long before the establishment of the young trees.
MAI Mean annual increment. Average increment accumulated over life of the stand. Culminates where PAI
Mast Fruit of trees and shrubs that are food for livestock and wildlife. Hard mast includes hard nuts and seeds of trees such as oak, beech, walnut, etc. Soft mast includes fruit and berries from dogwood, blackberries, huckleberries, etc.
Occlusion The sealing over of wounds on tree stems.
PAI Periodic annual increment. Average increment over a short time period, such as 5 years.
Plant association Group of similarly adapted species
Plus-tree a tree selected on the basis of its outstanding phenotype but not yet clonally or progeny tested.
Prescribed fire Skillful application of fire under predetermined conditions of fuels, weather, and topography to achieve management objectives. —
Prescription (silviculture, not fire) A planned series of treatments designed to change current stand structure to one that meets management objectives; normally considers ecological, economic and societal constraints. —
Pruning lift Pruning to a specified height or stem diameter in one operation or stage. —
Quadratic mean diameter Diameter of the tree of mean basal area. Square root of average basal area per tree divided by .005454. —
Regeneration method A cutting procedure by which a new age class is created. —
Release operation Treatment designed to free young trees from undesirable, usually overtopping, competing vegetation; treatments include cleaning, liberation, and weeding. Completed not later than sapling stage. —
Rotation In even-aged systems, the period between regeneration establishment and final cutting. —
Salvage Removal of trees that are dead or in danger of being killed by factors other than inter-tree competition. —
Sanitation Cutting to reduce hazards from spread of damaging agents. This may be completed in conjunction with salvage harvesting. —
Silvicultural prescription A planned series of treatments designed to change current stand structure to one that meets management objectives; typically the prescription includes ecological, economic and social constraints. —
Silvicultural system A series of treatments designed to grow, harvest/tend and regenerate a given stand. —
Silviculture The art and science of producing and tending forests to enhance their utility for any purpose. In the simplest terms, it is applied forest ecology.
Site Area in which a stand (or plant) grows, considered in terms of its environment, particularly as this determines the type and quality of vegetation the area can carry. —
Site class A classification of site quality, usually expressed in terms of ranges of dominant tree height at a given age or potential mean annual increment at culmination. —
Site index Species-specific measure of actual or potential forest productivity, expressed in average height. used as an indicator of site quality. Height to which a tree will grow under forest conditions in X number of years.
Site Preparation Any treatment designed to enhance environmental conditions for establishing and managing forest vegetation after timber harvest (or other disturbance).
Site tree Tree free of defect, insect or disease damages, forking, dominant or co-dominant, even-aged, healthy crown, no evidence of past suppression —
Stagnation Stand of trees that has significantly slowed in diameter and height growth due to extremely high densities. —
Stand A contiguous group of trees sufficiently uniform in age-class distribution, composition, and structure, and growing on a site of uniform quality, to be a distinguishable unit. —
Stand density A quantitative measure of stocking expressed either absolutely in terms of number of trees, basal area or volume per unit area or relative to some standard condition. —
stand dynamics Changes in forest structure over time. Sometimes used synonymously with stand development. —
Stand improvement An intermediate treatment made to improve the composition, structure, condition, health, and growth of even- or uneven-aged stands. —
Stand structure The vertical and horizontal arrangement of stand components – including size, species, and ages of trees as well as the understory shrubs, herbaceous layer and downed woody debris. —
Stocking An indication of growing space occupancy relative to a preestablished standard. —
Thermal cover Habitat providing shelter from climatic extremes. —
Thinning Cultural treatment that reduces stand density; common objectives are to improve forest health, capture predicted mortality and improve growth of residual trees. —
Weed Undesirable vegetation which may reduce availability of light, moisture, and nutrients which affect seedling survival and growth. May also be referred to as competing vegetation.
Weeding Thorough removal of all plants competing with the crop species, regardless of place in the canopy (above, beside or below desirable species) —
Yard To convey logs or trees to a landing, particularly by cable, balloon or helicopter logging systems. —
Yarder A system of power-operated winches and a tower used to haul logs from a stump to a landing. —
Yield The amount of wood that may be harvested from a particular type of forest stand by species, site, stocking and management regime at various ages.

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