Endocrine System

Question Answer
aden/o gland
adren/o, adrenal/o adrenal gland
andr/o male
crin/o to secrete
dips/o thirst
gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o glucose (sugar)
hormon/o hormone (an urging on)
keto/o, keton/o ketone bodies
pancreat/o pancreas
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o, thyroid/o thyroid gland (shield)
adrenal glands, suprarenal glands on superior surface of kidneys; adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, and adrenal medulla secrete Epi and NE
glucocorticoids reg carb metabolism and have anti-inflammatory effects; cortisol is most significant one
mineral corticosteroids maintain salt and water balance
androgens influence development and maintenance of male sex charact; ex facial hair, deep voice
catecholamines hormone secreted by adrenal medulla that affect SNS in stress response
epinephrine secreted in response to fear or physical injury
norepinephrine secreted in response to hypotension and physical stress
ovaries located on both sides of uterus in female pelvis; secrete estrogen and progesterone
estrogen resp for development of female secondary sex charact
progesterone regulate uterine conditions during pregnancy
islets of Langerhans of the pancreas endocrine tissue w/n the pancreas; secrete insulin and glucagon
insulin secreted by beta cells for regulating metabolism of glucose
glucagon secreted by alpha cells to regulate carb metabolism by raising blood sugar
parathyroid glands two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck; secrete PTH
parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulate calcium and phosphorous metabolism
pineal gland located in center of brain; secrete melatonin and serotonin
melatonin exact function unknown; affects the onset of puberty
serotonin NT that serves as precursor to melatonin
pituitary gland, hypophysis located at base of brain; secrete hormones that reg function of other glands
anterior pituitary, adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary gland; secretes TSH, ACTH,FSH,LH, MSH, GH, and prolactin
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) initiates the growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates the secretion of estrogen in females and prod. of sperm in males
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) affects skin pigmentation
luteinizing hormone (LH) causes ovluation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum; secrete testostosterone in testes
growth hormone (GH) influences growth
prolactin, lactogenic hormone stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy
posterior pituitary, neurohypophysis posterior lobe of pituitary gland; relates ADH and oxytocin
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) influences the absorption of water by kidneys tubules
oxytocin influences uterine contraction
testes located on both sides w/n scrotum in male; secrete testosterone
testosterone affects masculinization and reproduction
thymus gland located in mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart; secretes thymosin
thymosin regulates immune response
thyroid gland located in front of the neck; secretes triiodothyronine(T3), thyroxine(T4), and calcitonin
triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) known as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism
calcitonin regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
exophthalmos, exophthalmus protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
glucosuria, glycosuria glucose (sugar) in the urine
hirsutism shaggy; excessive growth of hair, especially in unusual places (bearded woman)
hypercalcemia abnormally high level of calcium in blood
hypocalcemia abnormally low level of calcium in blood
hyperkalemia abnormally high level of potassium in blood
hypokalemia deficient level of potassium in blood
hypersecretion abnormally increased secretion
hyposecretion abnormally decreased secretion
ketosis, ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) abnormal amount ketone bodies in blood and urine indicating abnormal use of cabs, such as uncontrolled diabetes & starvation
metabolism all chem process in body that result in growth, generation of energy, elim of waste, and other functions
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyuria excessive urination
Cushing syndrome signs & Sx by excess cortisol; d/t excess prod by adrenal gland or side effect Tx w/ glucocorticoid/steroid hormones such as prednisone; Sx = upper body obesity, puffy face, hyperglycemia, weakness, thin/easily bruised skin w/ stria, HTN, and osteoporosis
adrenal virilism excess adrenal secretion of androgen in adult women caused by tumor or hyperplasia; evid by amenorrhea, acne, hirsutism, deep voice
diabetes mellitus (DM) metabolic disorder caused by absence/insufficient prod insulin secreted by pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glucosuria
Type 1 DM no beta-cell prod of insulin, patient dependent on insulin for survival
Type 2 DM body prod insuff insulin or insulin resistance; patient usually not insulin dependent
hyperinsulinism cond resulting from excessive amt insulin in blood that draws sugar out of bloodstream, results in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; caused by overdose or by tumor of pancreas
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
hyperparathyroidism hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually cuased by tumor
hypoparathyroidism hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
acromegaly charact by enlarged features, especially of face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of pituitary GH after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often pituitary tumor
pituitary dwarfism cond of congenital hyposecretion of GH that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate, stature; often treated during childhood w/ GH; other forms of dwarfism most often caused by genetic defects
pituitary gigantism cond of hypersecretion of GH during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth, esp. long bones; most often caused by pituitary tumor
goiter enlargement of thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in diet, or inflammation
hyperthyroidism cond of hypersecretion of thyroid gland charact by nervousness, weight loss, rapid pulse, exophthamos, goiter, etc.
Graves disease most common form of hyperthyroidism; caused by autoimmune defect that creates Ab that stimulate overprod. of thyroid hormones; exophthalmos featured charact.
hypothyroidism cond of hyposecretion of thyroid hormone; result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
myxedema advanced hypothyroidism in adults charact by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness of hands and face, and dry skin
cretinism cond of congenital hypothyroidism in children that result in lack of mental development and dwarf physical stature; thyroid gland either absent at birth or imperfectly developed
blood sugar (BS), blood glucose meas. of sugar level (glucose) in blood
fasting blood sugar (FBS) meas. of blood sugar level after fasting for 12 hours
postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) meas. of blood sugar level after meal
glucose tolerance test (GTT) meas. of body's ability to metabolize carbs by admin. prescribed amt of glucose after fasting period, then meas. blood and urine for glucose levels every hour thereafter for 4-6 hrs
glycohemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) a molecule in hemoglobin, level of which rises in blood as result of an increased level of blood sugar; common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes
electrolyte panel meas. of level of specific ions (Na, K, Cl, HCO3 via CO2) in blood; electrolytes essential for water bal
thyroid function study meas. of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determ efficiency of glandular secreations T3, T4, and TSH
urine sugar and ketone studies chem test to determ presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine; used as screen for diabetes
computed tomography (CT) CT of the head is used to obtain a transverse (horizontal) view of pituitary gland
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormalities of pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, and thyroid glands
sonography sonographic images are used to identify endocrine pathology, such as w/ thyroid ultrasound
thyroid uptake and image radionuclide (nuclear medicine) scan of thyroid to visualize the radioactive accum of previously inj isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
adrenalectomy excision of the adrenal glands
hypophysectomy excision of the pituitary gland
pancreatectomy excision of the pancreas
parathyroidectomy excision of the parathyroid glands
thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
thyroidectomy excision of the thyroid gland
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)/ insulin pump therapy use of insulin delivery device worn on body (usually abdomen) and subcutaneously infuses doses of insulin programmed according to individual needs of diabetic patients
radioiodine therapy use of radioactive iodine to treat disease, such as eradicate thyroid tumor cells, Tx admin in a nuclear medicine facility
antidiabetic drug any of several agents used to control blood sugar levels in treatment of diabetes mellitus
antithyroid drug an agent that blocks the production of thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) treatment with a hormone to correct a hormonal deficiency (e.g. estrogen, testosterone, and thyroid)
hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic a drug that lowers the blood glucose (e.g. insulin)

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