Endocrine Glands

Question Answer
What gland is located beneath the hypothalamus at the base of the forebrain? Pituitary gland
What gland is structurally and functionally divided into anterior and posterior lobes? Pituitary gland
What does the pituitary gland hang below the hypothalamus by? Infundibulum
What part of the pituitary gland produces its own hormones? Anterior
What part of the pituitary gland is contrlled by the hypothalamus? Anterior
What part of the pituitary gland stores and releases hormones made in the hypothalamus? Posterior
What part of the pituitary stores and releases the hormones vasopressin and oxytocin that are make in the hypothalamus? Posterior
What part of the pituitary gland secretes 6 trophic hormones? Anterior
What are the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary called? Trophic hormones
High concentrations of the anterior pituitary hormones cause the target organ to _________ while low concentration of the anterior pituitary homones cause the target organs to ____________? Hypertrophy/Atrophy
What hormone of the anterior pituitary promotes growth, protein synthesis, and movement of amino acids into the cells? Growth hormones (GH)
What hormone of the anterior pituitary stimulates the thyroid to produce and secrete T4 and T3? Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
What hormone of the anterior pituitary stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol, and aldosterone? Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ATCH)
What hormone of the anterior pituitary stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and sperm production? Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
What hormone of the anterior pituitary causes ovulation and secretion of testosterone in the testes? Luteinizing hormone (LH)
What hormone of the anterior pituitary stimulates milk production by mammary glands? Prolactin (PRL)
The release of the anterior pituitary hormones is controlled by what 2 things? Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting factors and by feedback from levels of target gland hormones
Because axons do not enter the anterior pituitary, hypothalamic control of the ant. pituitary is achieved through hormonal or neural regulations? hormonal
Releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus are released from the _____ ______ into the ______ ________ in the _______ ________. axon ending/capillary bed/median eminence
What region contains blood capillaries that are drained by venules in the stald of the pituitary? Median eminence
The vascular link between the hypothalamus and the ant. pit is called the __________-_________ portal system. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system
What type of hormones are secreted into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system by neurons of the hypothalamus? Regulatory
The hypothalamus receives input from higher brain centers. Emotional states and psychological stress can affect the circadian rhythms, menstrual cycle, and adrenal hormones which can affect the secretion of hormones from what gland? Ant. Pituitary
The ant. pit. secretion of ACTH, TSH and the gonadotropins is controlled by what from the target gland hormones? Negative feedback inhibition
During menstrual cycle estrogen stimulates "LH surge" by what type of feedback? Positive
Feedback control of the ant. pit. involves what type of feedback in which retrograde flow of blood and hormones from the A. Pit. to the hypothalamus inhibits secretion of releasing hormone? Short feedback loop
The posterior pituitary stores and releases 2 hormones that pare produced where? Hypothalamus
What hormone of the P. Pit promotes H2O conservation by the kidneys? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH/vassopressin)
What hormone of the P. Pit stimulates contractions of the uterus during parturition and contractions of the mammary gland alveoli for milk-ejection reflex? Oxytocin
What produces ADH in the hypothalamus? Supraoptic nuclei
What produces oxytocin in the hypothalamus? Paraventricular nuclei
ADH and oxytocin are both transported along what tract to the P. Pit? Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
The relationship between the anterior pituitary and a particular target gland is described as what? Axis
What axis refers to the action of gonadotropic hormones on the testes and ovaries and is stimulated by GnRH from the hypothalamus? Pituitary-Gonad axis
The release of ADH and oxytocin that's controlled in the hypothalamus is by what reflexes? Neuroendrocrine
What is the cotex of the adrenal gland controlled by? ACTH
The cortex secretes what 3 hormones? Cortisol, aldosterone, and some supplementary sex steroids
What hormone of the adrenal cortex inhibits glucose utilization and stimulates gluconeogenesis? Cortisol
What hormone of the adrenal cotex stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb Na+ and secrete K+? Aldosterone
The adrenal mudulla synthesizes and secretes what 2 hormones? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What NS is the adrenal medulla controlled by? Sympathetic
The hormones of the adrenal medulla are innervated by what type of sympathetic fibers? Preganglionic
The adrenal medulla is activated by what type of response? "Fight or Flight"
The fignt or flight response activates what 4 things in the body? Inc. res. rate, inc. HR & cardiac output, general vasoconstriction, inc. venous return, and glycogenolysis and lipolysis
Stress induces a non-specific response called what which causes the release of what 2 hormones? General adaptation syndrome (GAS)/ACTH and cortisol
Chronic stress can induce high levels of ________that cause a number of negative effects such as atrophy of the ___________? Cortisol/Hippocampus (involved in memory)
Stress and the adrenal gland can reduce sensitivity of tissues to what hormone causing type 2 diabetes? Insulin
Chronic stress and the adrenal gland causes the inhibition of what cranial nerve activity? Vagus
Chronic stress and the adrenal gland causes suppression of what 3 hormones? Growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and gonadotropins
The three categories of steroid hormones are derived from the same precurso which is what? Cholesteral
The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones called what? Corticosteroids (corticoids)
What are the 3 functional categories of corticosteroids? Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids
What is the most potent mineralocorticoid? Aldosterone
What is the predoninent glucocorticoid in humans? Cortisol
Where are the mineralocorticoids produced? Zona Glomerulosa
Where are the glucocorticoids secreted? Zona fasciculata
What gland secretes T4, T3 and sets the BMR? Thyroid gland
The outer layer of the thyroid gland is made up of _________ ________ that synthesize _______. Follicle cells/T4
The interior of the thyroid gland is filled with __________ which is a protein-rich fluid. Colloid
In the production of the thyroid hormone, how is the iodine from the blood transported into the follicles and secreted into the colloid? Active transport
In the production of thyroid hormones, once the iodine (I1) is secreted into the colloid it is oxidized to iodine (I2) and attached to _________ of __________. Tyrosines/thyroglobulin
What is the name of the protein that contains the amino acid tyrosine in which one iodine attaches to? Thyroglobulin
What stimulates the hydrolysis of T4 and T3 from thyroglobulin and then secretion? TSH
What is the name of the large storage molecule for T4 and T3? Thyroglobulin
In the absence of sufficient dietary iodide, T4 and T3 cannot be made and levels are low and therefore doesn't provide _________ feedback and ________ levels go up. Negative/TSH
What is the result of an overproduction of TSH? Goiter
TSH is considered what type of hormone? Trophic ("feed" or attracted to)
People with inadequate T4 and T3 levels have what disease of the Thyroid? Hypothyroidism
If a patient has a low BMR, weight gain, lethargy, and cold intolerance what would they be diagnosed with? Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism in adults causes what condition that causes one to have a puffy face, hands, and feet? Myxedema
During fetal development hypothyroidism can cause what Createnism (severe mental retardation)
Aside from hypothyroidism, goiters are also produced by what disease? Graves
What is an autoimmune disease where antibodies act like TSH and stimulate the thyroid gland to grow and oversecrete causing hyperthyroidism? Graves
What disease is characterized by exopthalmos, weight loss, heat intolerance, irritability, and a high BMR? Hyperthyroidism
What is the most important hormone for control of blood Ca++ levels and is secreted by the parathyroid gland? PTH
There are 4 glands embedded in the _______ lobes of the _____ side of the thyroid gland. Lateral/Posterior
What is the release of the parathyroid hormone stimulated by? Decrease blood Ca++
What 3 things does the parathyroid hormone act on to increase blood Ca++ levels? Bones, kidney, and intestines
What are the scattered clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas called? Islets of langerhans
What contains alpha and beta cells? Islets of langerhans
What cells of the islets of langerhans secrete glucagon in response to low blood glucose? Alpha
What cells of the islets of langerhans stimulates glycogenolysis and lipolysis? Alpha
What cells of the islets of langerhans increases blood glucose? Alpha
What cells of the islets of langerhans secrete insulin in response to low blood glucose? Beta
What cells of the islets of langerhans promotes entry of glucose into the cells and the conversion of glucose into glycogen and fat? Beta
What cells of the islets of langerhans decreases blood glucose? Beta
What gland is located in the basal forebrain near the thalamus? Pineal
The pineal gland secretes melatonin in response to activity of the of what part of the hypothalamus? Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus is the primary timing center for what? Circadian rhythms
What is involved in aligning physiology with sleep/wake cycle and seasons? Melatonin
What is secreted at night and is inhibited by light and is also implicated in jet-lag? Melatonin
What are the 2 organs of the GI tract that produce hormones? Stomach and small intestines
What secrete steroid hormones testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone? Gonads (testes and ovaries)
What secretes estrogen, progesterone, hCG, and somatomammotropin? Placenta
What regulators are produced and act within the same tissues of an organ? Autocrine
All _________ control gene expression in target cells. Autocrine
What regulators are autocrines that are produced within one tissue and act on different tissues in the same organ? Paracrine
What are 3 types of autocrines and paracrines? Cytokins, growth factors, and neutrophins
What are the 2 types of cytokins? Lymphokines and interleukins
What type of autocrine/paracrine provides trophic support for normal and regenerating neurons Neutrophin
What type of autocrine/paracrine promote growth and cell division? Growth factors
What type of endocrine glands are produced in almost every organ? Protaglandins
Prostoglandins belong to what family? Eicosanoid
Prostoglandins are derived from _________ acid of the plasma membrane. Arachidonic
What endocrine glands may exert antagonistic effect in tissues such as smooth muscle contraction/relaxation or promote/inhibit blood clotting? Prostaglandins
What endocrine gland promotes inflammatory process of the immune system? Prostaglandins
What endocrine gland plays a role in ovulation as well as inhibits gastric secretion in the digestive system? Prostaglandins
What are involved in Prostaglandin synthesis? Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2
What are considered targets of a number of inhibitory NSAIDs? Cyclooxygenase (COX)
What 3 drugs inhibit both COX 1 and 2 thereby producing side effects? Aspirin, indomethacin, and ibuprofen
What 2 drugs only inhibit COX 2 and have few side effects in the gastric mucose? Celebrex and vioxx

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