BJU 6th Science – Chapter 14

Question Answer
Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system contains millions of nerve cells that communicate what is going on with the body
brain command center of the body
cerebrum largest part of brain; controls muscle movements and receives information for the senses
lobes distinct areas of the cerebrum
cerebellum sends messages to muscles throughout the body; locate underneath the cerebrum
brain stem connects to the spinal cord, controls involuntary actions
spinal cord bundle of nerve fibers that connect the brain to the rest of the body
neuron a nerve cell that carries impulses between various parts of the body
sensory neuron nerve cell that carries messages from the senses to the central nervous system
motor neuron a nerve cell that carries messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles
dendrite the part of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons
impulse an electrical message passed from neuron to neuron
axon the part of the neuron that receives messages from the dendrite and passes the messages to the next neuron
synapse gap between neurons that messages cross
reflex an action that happens before the brain has time to think about the action
memory cell a type of white blood cell that remembers a pathogen and the specific antibody needed to destroy the pathogen
short-term memory the brain’s temporary storage of information
long-term memory storage of information that can last for months, years, or a lifetime
hormone a chemical messenger for the endocrine system
endocrine gland special groups of cells that make chemicals, such as hormones, for the body
target cell a group of cells that can be affected by a certain hormone
hypothalamus a group of special cells near the base of the brain that helps to regulate parts of the body, such as the pituitary gland
pituitary gland the master gland of the endocrine system; secretes hormones that control other glands
epilepsy a seizure disorder caused by the neurons in the brain sending their electrical impulses too quickly and at an irregular rate
multiple sclerosis an autoimmune disorder that destroys the myelin coating covering the axon in some neurons; can result in muscle weakness, paralysis, or loss of vision
Parkinson’s disease a disorder of the nervous system that damages brain cells that control movement
Alzheimer’s disease a disorder of the nervous system; affects a person’s mind, often decreasing

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