2010 Mid Term Vocabulary

Question Answer
Triple Beam Balance A scale with 3 riders on 3 beams to determine the mass of things.
Graduated Cylinder A cylindrical measuring instrument for measuring fluid volume.
Beaker A wide cylindircal glass vessel with a pouring lip.
Density D=M/V; how tight or loose atoms are.
Prediction Made from observing and then making inferences based on what was found.
Mass The quantity of matter as determined from its weight.
Goggles Glasses equipped with special lenses, protective rims to prevent injury from eyes.
Volume Amount of space measured in cubic units that an object occupies.
Observation Made using 1 or more senses to gather information.
Test Tube Hollow cylinder of thing glass with one end closed.
Inference Made when a reasoned opinion is made based on observations and experience.
Atom Smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still have the same properties.
Atomic Mass Average mass of one atom of an element.
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of an element.
Nucleus Center of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons.
Proton Positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron Particle with a neutral charge which is located in the nucleus.
Electron Negatively charged particle that exists in an electron cloud formation.
Valence Electron An electron of an atom located in the outermost shell (valence shell)
Ion An electrically charged particle by gaining or losing one or more electrons.
Element Substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Isotope An electrically charged particle by gaining or losing one or more neutrons.
Metal Elements with a shiny surface; conducting electricity and thermal energy.
Nonmetal Element that is a gas or brittle solid; poor conductor of heat and electricity.
Metalloid Elements that share properties with metals and nonmetals.
Group Columns of metal in which elements have similar properties.
Period A row of elements arranged by atomic number.
Element Substances that are building blocks of matter and are made of only 1 kind of atom.
Transition Elements Elements in groups 3-12, which are all metals.
Representative Elements Groups 1-2 and 13-18 that include metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
Law of Conservation of Matter Law that says matter can neither be created or destroyed.
Element Molecule Pure substance made up of 1 atom type.
Compound Molecule Pure substance composed of 2 or more elements.
Reactants Substance that exists before a chemical reaction begins.
Products Substance that forms as a result of a chemical reaction.
Chemical Equation Way of describing a chemical reaction using chemical forumulas on paper.
Chemical Formula Representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements.
Coefficient A numerical measure for a property that is constant for a system under specified conditions.
Subscript The size and position of text.
Synthesis Forming of a more complex substance.
Decomposition To break down into simpler chemical compounds.
Single Replacement A chemical reaction in which an element replaces one element in a compound.
Double Replacement A chemical reaction in which elements in reactants recombine to form 2 different compounds.
Acceleration Velocity divided by time; change in velocity
Balanced Force Equal forces in opposite direction
Direction Which way you are going
Force Push or pull
Newton's 1st Law An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion until acted upon by a unbalanced force.
Newton's 2nd Law The acceleration of an object depends upon the size of the force and the mass of the object.
Newton's 3rd Law For every action, there is an opposite and equal reaction.
Speed S= D/T
Unbalanced Force Unequal forces
Velocity Speed and direction; displacement/time
HR Diagram The graph showing the absolute magnitude plotted against the surface temperature for a group of stars; Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Main Sequence Star Any star lying on the diagonal band that extends from hot stars of high luminosity to cool stars of low luminosity; stars on the HR diagram; medium stars (sun)
White Dwarf Star Last stage in the life cycle of a main sequence star in which its core uses up its helium and its outer layer escapes into space, leaving behind a hot, dense core.
Red Giant Star A large, old luminous star; has a relatively low surface temperature and a diameter large relative to the Sun.
Elliptical Galaxy A type of galaxy having the shape of a spheroid or ellipsoid. They are large and bright.
Irregular Galaxy A galaxy with no specific form and a relatively low mass.
Spiral Galaxy A galaxy having a spiral structure, shaped like whirlpools with arms. Has a similar galaxy called barred spirals.
Light Year Distance light travels in one year- about 9.5 trillion km- which is used to record distances between stars and galaxies.
Asteroid A piece of rock made up of material similar to that which formed the planets; mainly found in the asteroid belt.
Comet Space object made up of material similar to that which formed the planets; mainly found in the asteroid belt.
Meteor A meteoroid that burns up in Earth's atmosphere.
Meteoroid Remnants of comets traveling through space.
Meteorite A meteoroid that burns up in Earth's atmosphere.
Big Bang Theory States that about 12-15 billion years ago, the universe began with a huge, fiery explosion.
Nebula A collection of gas and dust in space where stars are born.
Radiowaves Emitted by stars and gas in space. Not for listening to music.
Microwaves Used in space for astronomers to study the structure of our galaxy and other galaxies.
Infrared Our skin emits ___. In space IR maps the dust between stars.
Visible Light you can see. Stars, fireflies, and even lightbulbs emit this.
Ultraviolet These are emitted by the sun and other hot things in space.
X-Ray These are used by your doctors to look at bones and teeth. Hot gases in the universe emit these.
Gamma-Ray Radioactive materials (some natural and some manmade) can emit _. Big particle accelerators that scientists use to help them understand what matter is made of can sometimes generate _. But the biggest generator is the universe. It's made in a lot of ways.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *