Lytle – APES Ch 13 Vocab

Question Answer
certification of forestry The formal process by which the actual practices of specific corporations or government agencies are compared with practices that we believe to be consistent with sustainability. As practiced today, it is as much an art or a craft as it is a science.
clear-cutting In timber harvesting, the practice of cutting all trees in a stand at the same time.
codominants Trees that are fairly common, sharing the canopy or top part of the forest.
dominants in forestry, the tallest, most numerous, and most numerous trees in a forest community
wilderness An area unaffected now or in the past by human activities and without a noticeable presence of human beings.
old-growth forest A nontechnical term often used to mean a virgin forest(one never cut) but also used to mean a forest that has been undisturbed for a long but usually unspecified time.
plantation Managed forests, in which a single species is planted in straight rows and harvested at regular intervals.
public service functions Functions performed by ecosystems tat improve other forms of life i other ecosystems. Examples include the cleansing of the air by trees and removal of pollutants from water by infiltration through the soil.
rotation time Time between cuts of a stand or area of forestry.
second-growth forest A forest that has been logged and regrown.
seed-tree cutting A logging method in which mature trees with good genetic characteristics ad high seed production are preserved to promote regenerated of the forest. Is is an alternative to clear-cutting
selective cutting Practice of cutting some but not all trees leaving others to be cut for later use. Some are left to provide seed for future generations.Some left for wildlife habitat & recreation.
shelterwood-cutting A logging method in which dead and less desirable trees are cut first; mature trees are cut later. This ensures that young vigorous trees will always be left in the forest It's alternative to clear cutting
silviculture The practice of growing trees and managing forests, traditionally with an emphasis on the production of timber for commercial sale
site quality Used by foresters to mean an estimator of the maximum timber crop the land can produce in a given time.
stand An informal term used by foresters to refer to a group of trees.
strip-cutting In timber harvesting, the practice of cutting narrow rows of forest, leaving wooded corridors.
suppressed In forestry, tree species growing in the understory, beneath the dominant and intermediate species
sustainable forest Effort to manage a forest so that a resource in it an be harvested at a rate that does not decrease the ability of the forest ecosystem to continue to provide that same rate of harvest indefinitely.
thinning The timber-harvesting practice of selectively removing only smaller or poorly formed trees.
intermediate In forests, they are plants forming a layer of growth below dominants.

Lytle – APES Ch 6 Vocab

Question Answer
autotrophs An organism that produces its own food from inorganic compounds and a source of energy. There are photoautotrophs and chemical autotrophs
community-level interactions When the interaction between two species leads to changes in the presence or absence of other species or in a large change in abundance of other species, then a community effect is said to have occurred.
decomposers Organisims that feed on dead organic matter.
ecological community 1.Conceptual or functional meaning: set of interacting species that occur in same place(sometimes extended to mean a set that interacts in way to sustain life) 2. operational meaning: set of species found in an area, whether or not they are interacting
food chains The linkage of who feeds on whom.
food webs A network of who feeds on whom or a diagram showing who feeds on who. It is synonymous with food chain
keystone species A species, such as the sea otter that has a large effect on its community or ecosystem so that its removal or addition to the community leads to major changes in the abundances of many or all other species.
succession The process of establishment and development of an ecosystem.
trophic level In an ecological community, all the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the primary source of energy.
watershed An area of land that forms the drainage of a stream or river. If a drop of rain falls anywhere within a watershed to become surface runoff, it can flow out only through the same stream.

Lytle – APES Ch 5 Vocab

Question Answer
biogeochemical cycle The cycling of a chemical element through the biosphere; its pathways, storage locations, and chemical forms in living things, the atmosphere, oceans, sediments, and the lithosphere.
carbon-silicate cycle A complex cycle over as long as 1/2 billion years. Includes geologic processes, like weathering, transport by waters, erosion & deposition of crustal rocks. Believed to provide important neg feedback mechanisms that control the temp of the atmosphere.
carbon cycle Biogeochemical cycle of carbon. Carbon combines with and is chemically and biologically linked with the cycles of oxygen and hydrogen that form the major compounds of life.
chemical reaction The process in which compounds and elements undergo a chemical change to become a new substance or substances.
denitrification The conversion of nitrate to molecular nitrogen by the action of bacteria – an important step in the nitrogen cycle.
drainage basin The area that contributes surface water to a particular stream network.
geologic cycle The formation and destruction of earth materials and the processes responsible for these events. The geologic cycle includes the following subcycles: hydrologic, tectonic, rock, and geochemical.
hydrologic cycle Circulation of water from the oceans to the atmosphere and back to the oceans by way of evaporation, runoff from streams and rivers, and groundwater flow.
limiting factor The 1 requirement for growth available in the least supply in comparison to the need of an organism. Once applied to crops, now often applied to any species.
macronutrients Elements required in large amounts by living things. These include the big six – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
micronutrients Chemical elements required in very small amounts by at least some form of life. Boron, copper, and molybdenum are examples.
missing carbon sink Substantial amounts of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere but apparently not reabsorbed and thus remaining unaccounted for.
nitrogen cycle A complex biogeochemical cycle responsible for moving important nitrogen components through the biosphere and other Earth systems. This is an extremely important cycle because nitrogen is required by all living things.
nitrogen fixation The process by which atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia, nitrate ion, or amino acids. Microorganisms perform most of the conversion, but a small amount is also converted by lightning.
phosphorus cycle Major biogeochemical cycle involving the movement of phosphorus throughout the biosphere and lithosphere. This cycle is important because phosphorus is an essential element for life and often is a limiting nutrient for plant growth.
plate tectonics A model of global tectonics that suggests that the outer layer of Earth, known as the lithosphere, is composed of several large plates that move relative to one another. Continents and ocean basins are passive riders on these plates.
rock cycle A group of processes that produce igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
tectonic cycle The processes that change Earth’s crust, producing external forms such as ocean basins, continents, and mountains.

Lytle – APES Ch 3 Vocab

Question Answer
average residence time A measure of the time it takes for a given part of the total pool of a material in a system to be cycled through the system. he ratio of the total size of the pool or reservoir to the average rate of transfer through the pool.
biosphere The part of a planet where life exists. A 2nd meaning is: the planetary system that includes and sustains life, and therefore is made up of the atmosphere, oceans, soils, upper bedrock, and all life.
biota All the organisms of all species living in an area or region up to and including the biosphere, as in “the biota of the Mojave Desert.”
closed system A type of system in which there are definite boundaries to factors such as mass & energy such that exchange of these factors w/ other systems does not occur.
doubling time The time necessary for a quantity of whatever is being measured to double.
ecosystem An ecological community & its local, abiotic community. It's the min. system that includes & sustains life. Must include an autotroph, decomposer, liquid medium, source & sink of energy, & all the chemicals required by the autrophs & decomposers.
environmental unity A principle of environmental sciences that states that everything affects everything else, meaning that a particular course of action leads to an entire potential string of events. Another way of stating this idea is that you can’t only do one thing.
exponential growth Growth in which the rate of increase is a constant percentage of the current size; that is, the growth occurs at a constant rate per time period.
feedback A kind of system response that occurs when output of the system also serves as input leading to changes in the system.
Gaia hypothesis The surface environ of Earth, with respect to such factors as the atmospheric composition of reactive gases, the acidity-alkilinity of waters, & the surface temp., are actively regulated by the sensing, growth, metabolism, & other activities of the biota.
lag time The time between a stimulus and the response of a system.
negative feedback A type of feedback that occurs when the system’s response is in the opposite direction of the output. Thus negative feedback is self-regulating.
open system A type of system in which exchanges of mass or energy occur w/ other systems.
overshoot and collapse Occurs when growth in 1 part of a system over time exceed carrying capacity, resulting in sudden decline in one or both parts of the system.
positive feedback A type of feedback that occurs when an increase in output leads to a further increase in output. This is sometimes known as a vicious cycle, since the more you have, the more you get.
steady state When input equals output in a system, there is no net change and the system is said to be in a steady state. Compare with equilibrium.
system A set of components that are linked and interact to produce a whole. For example, the river as a system is composed of sediment, water, bank, vegetation, fish, and other living things that all together produce the river.
uniformitarianism The principle stating that processes that operate today operated in the past. Therefore observations of process today can explain events that occurred in the past and leave evidence, for example in the fossil record or in geologic formation.

Lytle – APES Ch 2 Vocab

Question Answer
controlled experiment an experiment designed to test the effects of independent variables on a dependent variable by changing only 1 independent variable at a time
deductive reasoning drawing a conclusion from initial definitions and assumptions by means of logical reasoning
dependent variable a variable that changes in response to changes in an independent variable; a variable taken as the outcome of 1 or more other variables
disprovability the idea that a statement can be said o be scientific if someone can clearly state a method or test by which it might be disproved
fact something that is known based on actual experience and observation
hypothesis An explanation set forth in a manner that can be tested and disproved. A tested hypothesis is accepted until and unless it has been disproved.
independent variable the variable that is manipulated by the investigator. In an observational study, it is the variable that is believed to affect an outcome, or dependent variable.
inductive reasoning drawing a general conclusion from a limited set of specific observations
inference 1) a conclusion derived by logical reasoning from premises and/or evidence (observations or facts), or 2) a conclusion, based on evidence, arrived at by insight or analogy, rather than derived solely by logical processes
manipulated variable see independent variable
model a deliberately simplified explanation, often physical, mathematical, pictorial, or computer-simulated, of complex phenomena or processes
observations information obtained through 1 or more of the 5 senses or through instruments that extend the senses, such as a microscope or telescope.
operational definitions definitions that tell you what you need to look for or do in or order to carry out an operation, such as measuring, constructing, or manipulating
premises in science, initial definitions and assumptions
probability the likelihood that an event will occur
pseudoscientific describes ideas that are claimed to have scientific validity but are inherently untestable and/or lack empirical support and/or are arrived at through faulty reasoning or poor scientific methodology
qualitative data Data distinguished by qualities or attributes that cannot be or are not expressed as quantities. For example color, shape, or relative size.
quantitative data Data expressed as numbers or numerical measurements. For example, a frequency on the electromagnetic spectrum instead of a color.
responding variable see dependent variable
scientific method a set of systematic methods by which scientists investigate natural phenomena, including gathering data, formulating and testing hypotheses, and developing scientific theories and laws
scientific theory a grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence, in contrast to a guess, a hypothesis, a prediction, a notion, or a belief
theories scientific models that offer broad, fundamental explanations of related phenomena and are supported by consistent and extensive evidence

Lytle – APES Ch 1 Vocab

Question Answer
aesthetic justification An argument for the conservation of nature on the grounds that nature is beautiful and that beauty is important and valuable to people
carrying capacity The maximum abundance of a population or species that can be maintained by a habitat or ecosystem without degrading the ability of that habitat or ecosystem to maintain that abundance in the future
ecological justification An argument for the conservation of nature on the grounds that a species, an ecological community, an ecosystem, or Earth's biosphere provides specific functions necessary to the persistence of our life or of benefit to life.
Gaia hypothesis States that the interaction between the physical and biological system on Earth's surface has led to a planetwide physiology that began more than 3 billion years ago and the evolution of which can be detected in the fossil record.
megacities Urban areas with at least 8 million inhabitants
moral justification An argument for the conservation of nature on the grounds that aspects of the environment have a right to exist, independent o human desires, and that is our moral obligation to allow them to continue or to help them persist.
Precautionary Principle the idea ht in spite of the fact that full scientific certainty is often not available to prove cause and effect,we should still take cost-effective precautions to solve environmental problems when th
sustainability Management of natural resources and the environment with the goals of allowing the harvest of resources to remain at or above some specified level, and ecosystem to retain its functions and structure
sustainable ecosystem An ecosystem that is subject to some human use, but at a level that leads to no loss of species or of necessary ecosystem functions.
sustainable resource harvest An Amount of a resource that can be harvested at regular intervals indefinitely.
utilitarian justification A classification of soils, widely used in engineering practice, based on the amount of coarse particles fine particles, or organic material

Lytle – APES Ch 12 Vocab

Question Answer
biological control A set of methods to control pest organisms by using natural ecological interactions, including predation, parasitism, and competition. Pard of integrated pest management.
contour plowing Plowing land along topographic contours as much in a horizontal plane as possible, thereby decreasing the erosion rate.
desertification The process of creating a desert where there was not one before.
integrated pest management Control of agricultural pests using several methods together, including biological & chemical agents.A goal is to minimize use of artificial chemicals;another goal to prevent or slow the buildup of resistance by pests to chemical pesticides.
no-till agriculture Combination of farming practices that includes not plowing the land and using herbicides to keep down weeds.
overgrazing When the carrying capacity of land for an herbivore, such as cattle or deer, is exceeded.
terminator gene A genetically modified crop that has a gene to cause the plant to become sterile after the first year.

cell transportation

Question Answer
diffusion passive, no energy, down gradient, hi to lo conc.
osmosis passive, no energy, down gradient, lo to hi conc.
facillitated diffusion passive, no energy, down gradient, hi to lo conc.
active transportation active, energy, against gradient, lo to hi conc.
endocytosis active, energy, against gradient, lo to hi conc.
exocytosis active, energy, against gradient, lo to hi conc.
pinocytosis ingestion of fluid
phagocytosis engulfing large particles

Lytle – APES Ch 11 Vocab

Question Answer
agroecosystem An ecosystem created by agricultures. Typically it has low genetic species, and habitat diversity.
aquaculture Production of food from aquatic habitats.
crop rotation A series of different crops planted successively in the same field, with the field occasionally left fallow or with a cover crop.
genetically modified crops Crop species modified by genetic engineering to produce higher crop yields and increase resistance to drought, cold, heat, toxins, plant pests, and disease.
green revolution Name attached to post-WWII agricultural programs that have led to the development of new strains of crops with higher yield,better resistance to disease, or better ability to grow under poor conditions
limiting factor The single requirement for growth available in the least supply in comparison to the need of an organism.Originally applied to crops but now often applied to any species.
macronutrients Elements required in large amounts by living things. These include the big six-carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
mariculture Production of food from marine habitats. Marine evaporites.With respect to mineral resources refers to materials such as potassium and sodium salts resulting from the evaporation of marine waters.
micronutrients Chemical elements required in very small amounts by at least some forms of life. Boron, copper, and molybdenum are examples of micronutrients.
monoculture (Agriculture) The planting of large areas with a single species or even a single strain or sub-species in farming.
organic farming Farming that is more natural in the sense that it does not involve the use of artificial pesticides and, more recently, genetically modified crops. In recent years governments have begun to set up legal criteria for what constitutes organic farming.
pasture Land plowed and planted to provide forage for domestic herbivorous animals.
rangeland Land used for grazing.
synergistic effect When the change in availability of one resource affects the response of an organism to some other resource.

Definitions

Question Answer
Exocrine Glands Glands that secrete substances outward through a duct.
Endocrine Glands Ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Merocrine Glands Exocrine glands the secrete without losing cellular material.
Apocrine Glands Exocrine glands that have cytoplasm in their secretions.
Holocrine Glands Exocrine glands whose secretions are made up of disintegrated cells.
Extracellular Matrix The chemical substances located between connective tissue cells.
Fibroblasts Spindle-shaped cells that form connective tissue proper.
Chondrocytes Mature cartilage cells.
Stromal Cells Cells that provide structure or support for parenchymal cells.
Parenchymal Cells Cells that provide the actual function of the tissue.
Labile Cells Cells that undergo mitosis regularly and quickly.
Stable Cells Cells that do not regularly undergo mitosis but are able to if the need arises.
Permanent Cells Cells that cannot undergo mitosis.